Need Lunch On The Go?

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Submitted by: Smith Carol.

Make lunch healthy, economical and fun with a salad packed to go. The original Salad Blaster lets you prepare the perfect salad at home and then enjoy it?fresh, crisp and delicious?for lunch on the go, or any time you need a light meal to go.

Make lunch healthy, economical and fun with a salad packed to go. The original Salad Blaster lets you prepare the perfect salad at home and then enjoy it?fresh, crisp and delicious?for lunch on the go, or any time you need a light meal to go.

Portable and Convenient Salad Bowl

The Salad Blaster offers the convenience of taking your salad greens and dressing in a single leak-proof container to the office, to school, on the road, or any time you?re on the go. The portable, non-breakable Salad Blaster is available in the original-sized 26-oz Salad Blaster Cup or Salad Blaster Bowl, or the new larger-sized 40-oz Chef Salad Blaster Bowl, so you can pack a perfect-sized salad to match your appetite.

Keep Lunchbox Salads Crisp

No more soggy salad! The secret to Salad Blaster success is the separate dressing reservoir in the specially-designed Salad Blaster lid. With the push of a button, you ?blast? your salad with dressing when you?re ready to eat; then shake to mix, and enjoy a freshly-tossed and dressed salad with no mess. The leak-proof seal assures you that the dressing stays in the Salad Blaster, and not on your desk or clothing.

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Enjoy Lunch, Spend Less

You?ll enjoy Salad Blaster salads more than restaurant salads, because you can mix all of your favorite salad ingredients and dressing in the proportions that you like best.

And you?ll save money, too, by packing your lunch at home rather than pay for a restaurant meal.

Eat Healthy, Control Calories

By using the Salad Blaster, you?ll find it easier to eat healthier foods and control calories when you?re on the go. Consider these healthful advantages:

By packing a salad using greens, dressing and other ingredients that you truly enjoy, you?ll be more satisfied with your to-go meal and less likely to opt for restaurant take-out instead.

With a pre-measured amount of dressing, you won?t be tempted to over-indulge on the high-fat dressings offered at take-out restaurants.

Because you pack each ingredient, you can be assured of the freshness, cleanliness and quality of the salad that you eat.

For added health advantage, the Salad Blaster is constructed of PBA-free material.

Lunch-On-The-Go Variety

For better nutrition, lower budget and ultimate convenience, you can?t beat the Salad Blaster for a lunch on the go. Try a different salad every day of the week, packed to go in the original 26-oz Salad Blaster Cup, 26-oz Salad Blaster Bowl or the new larger-sized 40-oz Chef Salad Blaster Bowl. All come in a variety of colors, with a transparent bowl for viewing your salad mix. Top-rack dishwasher safe and PBA-free.

For added variety, try the Take A Dip bowl, which lets you pack snacks and dip in a single, portable container.

Salad Blaster, Salad Blaster Bowl, and Take A Dip are available from Compac Industries, Inc.

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Second night of violence in Belfast

Monday, September 12, 2005 

A second night of rioting on Sunday night and into Monday morning has taken place in and around Belfast, Northern Ireland, with loyalist mobs attacking police, hijacking vehicles and setting them alight.

A crowd of about 700 gathered on the Albertbridge road in the east of the city, where police were attacked. A mob of about 100 attacked police in the north of the city, and in the west of the city, a police station was attacked with a blast bomb (homemade grenade).

A digger was used to take out streetlighting before the disorder, with some of the street left in darkness. It is also believed that an ATM was removed by the digger. The police and army came under attack as they moved in to retrieve the items and respond.

Cars were hijacked and set alight in a number of locations. A more serious incident occurred in Bangor, some distance east of Belfast in County Down where a bus was hijacked. Passengers were ordered off the vehicle before being robbed, and the bus set alight, blocking a road.

Baton rounds were again fired by police and the army, with the army also firing one live round. A suspect was shot and apprehended in this incident, and they are to be charged with attempted murder.

The previous night’s riots were the worst seen in Northern Ireland for many years, and a first for involving live fire at police during a public disorder incident.

Top-down and bottom-up design

Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics), and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching.

A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a synonym of decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of “black boxes”, these make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. Top down approach starts with the big picture. It breaks down from there into smaller segments.[1]

A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to more complex systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. Bottom-up processing is a type of information processing based on incoming data from the environment to form a perception. Information enters the eyes in one direction (input), and is then turned into an image by the brain that can be interpreted and recognized as a perception (output). In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a “seed” model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, “organic strategies” may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.

During the design and development of new products, designers and engineers rely on both a bottom-up and top-down approach. The bottom-up approach is being utilized when off-the-shelf or existing components are selected and integrated into the product. An example would include selecting a particular fastener, such as a bolt, and designing the receiving components such that the fastener will fit properly. In a top-down approach, a custom fastener would be designed such that it would fit properly in the receiving components.[2] For perspective, for a product with more restrictive requirements (such as weight, geometry, safety, environment, etc.), such as a space-suit, a more top-down approach is taken and almost everything is custom designed. However, when it’s more important to minimize cost and increase component availability, such as with manufacturing equipment, a more bottom-up approach would be taken, and as many off-the-shelf components (bolts, gears, bearings, etc.) would be selected as possible. In the latter case, the receiving housings would be designed around the selected components.

In the software development process, the top-down and bottom-up approaches play a key role.

Top-down approaches emphasize planning and a complete understanding of the system. It is inherent that no coding can begin until a sufficient level of detail has been reached in the design of at least some part of the system. Top-down approaches are implemented by attaching the stubs in place of the module. This, however, delays testing of the ultimate functional units of a system until significant design is complete. Bottom-up emphasizes coding and early testing, which can begin as soon as the first module has been specified. This approach, however, runs the risk that modules may be coded without having a clear idea of how they link to other parts of the system, and that such linking may not be as easy as first thought. Re-usability of code is one of the main benefits of the bottom-up approach.[3]

Top-down design was promoted in the 1970s by IBM researchers Harlan Mills and Niklaus Wirth. Mills developed structured programming concepts for practical use and tested them in a 1969 project to automate the New York Times morgue index. The engineering and management success of this project led to the spread of the top-down approach through IBM and the rest of the computer industry. Among other achievements, Niklaus Wirth, the developer of Pascal programming language, wrote the influential paper Program Development by Stepwise Refinement. Since Niklaus Wirth went on to develop languages such as Modula and Oberon (where one could define a module before knowing about the entire program specification), one can infer that top down programming was not strictly what he promoted. Top-down methods were favored in software engineering until the late 1980s,[3] and object-oriented programming assisted in demonstrating the idea that both aspects of top-down and bottom-up programming could be utilized.

Modern software design approaches usually combine both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Although an understanding of the complete system is usually considered necessary for good design, leading theoretically to a top-down approach, most software projects attempt to make use of existing code to some degree. Pre-existing modules give designs a bottom-up flavor. Some design approaches also use an approach where a partially functional system is designed and coded to completion, and this system is then expanded to fulfill all the requirements for the project

Top-down is a programming style, the mainstay of traditional procedural languages, in which design begins by specifying complex pieces and then dividing them into successively smaller pieces. The technique for writing a program using top–down methods is to write a main procedure that names all the major functions it will need. Later, the programming team looks at the requirements of each of those functions and the process is repeated. These compartmentalized sub-routines eventually will perform actions so simple they can be easily and concisely coded. When all the various sub-routines have been coded the program is ready for testing. By defining how the application comes together at a high level, lower level work can be self-contained. By defining how the lower level abstractions are expected to integrate into higher level ones, interfaces become clearly defined.

In a bottom-up approach, the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a “seed” model, whereby the beginnings are small, but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a paradigm that uses “objects” to design applications and computer programs. In mechanical engineering with software programs such as Pro/ENGINEER, Solidworks, and Autodesk Inventor users can design products as pieces not part of the whole and later add those pieces together to form assemblies like building with LEGO. Engineers call this piece part design.

This bottom-up approach has one weakness. Good intuition is necessary to decide the functionality that is to be provided by the module. If a system is to be built from existing system, this approach is more suitable as it starts from some existing modules.

Parsing is the process of analyzing an input sequence (such as that read from a file or a keyboard) in order to determine its grammatical structure. This method is used in the analysis of both natural languages and computer languages, as in a compiler.

Bottom-up parsing is a strategy for analyzing unknown data relationships that attempts to identify the most fundamental units first, and then to infer higher-order structures from them. Top-down parsers, on the other hand, hypothesize general parse tree structures and then consider whether the known fundamental structures are compatible with the hypothesis. See Top-down parsing and Bottom-up parsing.

Top-down and bottom-up are two approaches for the manufacture of products. These terms were first applied to the field of nanotechnology by the Foresight Institute in 1989 in order to distinguish between molecular manufacturing (to mass-produce large atomically precise objects) and conventional manufacturing (which can mass-produce large objects that are not atomically precise). Bottom-up approaches seek to have smaller (usually molecular) components built up into more complex assemblies, while top-down approaches seek to create nanoscale devices by using larger, externally controlled ones to direct their assembly.

The top-down approach often uses the traditional workshop or microfabrication methods where externally controlled tools are used to cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. Micropatterning techniques, such as photolithography and inkjet printing belong to this category.

Bottom-up approaches, in contrast, use the chemical properties of single molecules to cause single-molecule components to (a) self-organize or self-assemble into some useful conformation, or (b) rely on positional assembly. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or molecular recognition. See also Supramolecular chemistry. Such bottom-up approaches should, broadly speaking, be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases.

These terms are also employed in neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology to discuss the flow of information in processing.[4] Typically sensory input is considered “down”, and higher cognitive processes, which have more information from other sources, are considered “up”. A bottom-up process is characterized by an absence of higher level direction in sensory processing, whereas a top-down process is characterized by a high level of direction of sensory processing by more cognition, such as goals or targets (Beiderman, 19).[3]

According to Psychology notes written by Dr. Charles Ramskov, a Psychology professor at De Anza College, Rock, Neiser, and Gregory claim that top-down approach involves perception that is an active and constructive process.[5] Additionally, it is an approach not directly given by stimulus input, but is the result of stimulus, internal hypotheses, and expectation interactions. According to Theoretical Synthesis, “when a stimulus is presented short and clarity is uncertain that gives a vague stimulus, perception becomes a top-down approach.”[6]

Conversely, Psychology defines bottom-up processing as an approach wherein there is a progression from the individual elements to the whole. According to Ramskov, one proponent of bottom-up approach, Gibson, claims that it is a process that includes visual perception that needs information available from proximal stimulus produced by the distal stimulus.[7] Theoretical Synthesis also claims that bottom-up processing occurs “when a stimulus is presented long and clearly enough.”[6]

Cognitively speaking, certain cognitive processes, such as fast reactions or quick visual identification, are considered bottom-up processes because they rely primarily on sensory information, whereas processes such as motor control and directed attention are considered top-down because they are goal directed. Neurologically speaking, some areas of the brain, such as area V1 mostly have bottom-up connections.[6] Other areas, such as the fusiform gyrus have inputs from higher brain areas and are considered to have top-down influence.[8]

The study of visual attention provides an example. If your attention is drawn to a flower in a field, it may be because the color or shape of the flower are visually salient. The information that caused you to attend to the flower came to you in a bottom-up fashion—your attention was not contingent upon knowledge of the flower; the outside stimulus was sufficient on its own. Contrast this situation with one in which you are looking for a flower. You have a representation of what you are looking for. When you see the object you are looking for, it is salient. This is an example of the use of top-down information.

In cognitive terms, two thinking approaches are distinguished. “Top-down” (or “big chunk”) is stereotypically the visionary, or the person who sees the larger picture and overview. Such people focus on the big picture and from that derive the details to support it. “Bottom-up” (or “small chunk”) cognition is akin to focusing on the detail primarily, rather than the landscape. The expression “seeing the wood for the trees” references the two styles of cognition.[9]

In management and organizational arenas, the terms “top-down” and “bottom-up” are used to indicate how decisions are made.

A “top-down” approach is one where an executive, decision maker, or other person or body makes a decision. This approach is disseminated under their authority to lower levels in the hierarchy, who are, to a greater or lesser extent, bound by them. For example, a structure in which decisions either are approved by a manager, or approved by his or her authorized representatives based on the manager’s prior guidelines, is top-down management.

A “bottom-up” approach is one that works from the grassroots—from a large number of people working together, causing a decision to arise from their joint involvement. A decision by a number of activists, students, or victims of some incident to take action is a “bottom-up” decision. Positive aspects of top-down approaches include their efficiency and superb overview of higher levels. Also, external effects can be internalized. On the negative side, if reforms are perceived to be imposed ‘from above’, it can be difficult for lower levels to accept them (e.g. Bresser Pereira, Maravall, and Przeworski 1993). Evidence suggests this to be true regardless of the content of reforms (e.g. Dubois 2002). A bottom-up approach allows for more experimentation and a better feeling for what is needed at the bottom.

Both approaches can be found in the organization of states, this involving political decisions.

In bottom-up organized organizations, e.g. ministries and their subordinate entities, decisions are prepared by experts in their fields, which define, out of their expertise, the policy they deem necessary. If they cannot agree, even on a compromise, they escalate the problem to the next higher hierarchy level, where a decision would be sought. Finally, the highest common principal might have to take the decision. Information is in the debt of the inferior to the superior, which means that the inferior owes information to the superior. In the effect, as soon as inferiors agree, the head of the organization only provides his or her “face? for the decision which their inferiors have agreed upon.

Among several countries, the German political system provides one of the purest forms of a bottom-up approach. The German Federal Act on the Public Service provides that any inferior has to consult and support any superiors, that he or she – only – has to follow “general guidelines” of the superiors, and that he or she would have to be fully responsible for any own act in office, and would have to follow a specific, formal complaint procedure if in doubt of the legality of an order.[10] Frequently, German politicians had to leave office on the allegation that they took wrong decisions because of their resistance to inferior experts’ opinions (this commonly being called to be “beratungsresistent”, or resistant to consultation, in German). The historical foundation of this approach lies with the fact that, in the 19th century, many politicians used to be noblemen without appropriate education, who more and more became forced to rely on consultation of educated experts, which (in particular after the Prussian reforms of Stein and Hardenberg) enjoyed the status of financially and personally independent, indismissable, and neutral experts as Beamte (public servants under public law).[11]

The experience of two dictatorships in the country and, after the end of such regimes, emerging calls for the legal responsibility of the “aidees of the aidees” (Helfershelfer) of such regimes also furnished calls for the principle of personal responsibility of any expert for any decision made, this leading to a strengthening of the bottom-up approach, which requires maximum responsibility of the superiors. A similar approach can be found in British police laws, where entitlements of police constables are vested in the constable in person and not in the police as an administrative agency, this leading to the single constable being fully responsible for his or her own acts in office, in particular their legality.

In the opposite, the French administration is based on a top-down approach, where regular public servants enjoy no other task than simply to execute decisions made by their superiors. As those superiors also require consultation, this consultation is provided by members of a cabinet, which is distinctive from the regular ministry staff in terms of staff and organization. Those members who are not members of the cabinet are not entitled to make any suggestions or to take any decisions of political dimension.

The advantage of the bottom-up approach is the level of expertise provided, combined with the motivating experience of any member of the administration to be responsible and finally the independent “engine” of progress in that field of personal responsibility. A disadvantage is the lack of democratic control and transparency, this leading, from a democratic viewpoint, to the deferment of actual power of policy-making to faceless, if even unknown, public servants. Even the fact that certain politicians might “provide their face” to the actual decisions of their inferiors might not mitigate this effect, but rather strong parliamentary rights of control and influence in legislative procedures (as they do exist in the example of Germany).

The advantage of the top-down principle is that political and administrative responsibilities are clearly distinguished from each other, and that responsibility for political failures can be clearly identified with the relevant office holder. Disadvantages are that the system triggers demotivation of inferiors, who know that their ideas to innovative approaches might not be welcome just because of their position, and that the decision-makers cannot make use of the full range of expertise which their inferiors will have collected.

Administrations in dictatorships traditionally work according to a strict top-down approach. As civil servants below the level of the political leadership are discouraged from making suggestions, they use to suffer from the lack of expertise which could be provided by the inferiors, which regularly leads to a breakdown of the system after an few decades. Modern communist states, which the People’s Republic of China forms an example of, therefore prefer to define a framework of permissible, or even encouraged, criticism and self-determination by inferiors, which would not affect the major state doctrine, but allows the use of professional and expertise-driven knowledge and the use of it for the decision-making persons in office.

Both top-down and bottom-up approaches exist in public health. There are many examples of top-down programs, often run by governments or large inter-governmental organizations (IGOs); many of these are disease-specific or issue-specific, such as HIV control or Smallpox Eradication. Examples of bottom-up programs include many small NGOs set up to improve local access to healthcare. However, a lot of programs seek to combine both approaches; for instance, guinea worm eradication, a single-disease international program currently run by the Carter Center has involved the training of many local volunteers, boosting bottom-up capacity, as have international programs for hygiene, sanitation, and access to primary health-care.

Often, the École des Beaux-Arts school of design is said to have primarily promoted top-down design because it taught that an architectural design should begin with a parti, a basic plan drawing of the overall project.

By contrast, the Bauhaus focused on bottom-up design. This method manifested itself in the study of translating small-scale organizational systems to a larger, more architectural scale (as with the woodpanel carving and furniture design).

In ecology, top-down control refers to when a top predator controls the structure or population dynamics of the ecosystem. The classic example is of kelp forest ecosystems. In such ecosystems, sea otters are a keystone predator. They prey on urchins which in turn eat kelp. When otters are removed, urchin populations grow and reduce the kelp forest creating urchin barrens. In other words, such ecosystems are not controlled by productivity of the kelp but rather a top predator.

Bottom up control in ecosystems refers to ecosystems in which the nutrient supply and productivity and type of primary producers (plants and phytoplankton) control the ecosystem structure. An example would be how plankton populations are controlled by the availability of nutrients. Plankton populations tend to be higher and more complex in areas where upwelling brings nutrients to the surface.

There are many different examples of these concepts. It is common for populations to be influenced by both types of control.

Vendor lock-in

In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs. Lock-in costs which create barriers to market entry may result in antitrust action against a monopoly.

SIM locking may be considered a vendor lock-in tactic, since phones purchased from the vendor will work with SIM cards only from the same network. This creates additional inconvenience to the buyer, as the phone cannot use a prepaid SIM from a different vendor while on vacation. As a result, the subscriber must also sign up for the often expensive roaming service offered by the vendor. Additionally, should the subscriber wish to take out a second line for any reason, they must also get the line from the same vendor, as the SIM card of a competing vendor will not work. Sometimes, even the SIM card from the same vendor will not work and the buyer will be forced into buying another phone.[citation needed]

Gift certificates are textbook examples of vendor lock-in as they can be used solely in the vendor’s shops. Gift certificates are typically only worth their face price (no bonus credit is added), so generally, they do not represent any financial advantage over money.

Also, some vendors practice a store-credit/gift certificate refund policy in the time of warranty if they can’t replace or repair the product. This is illegal in many jurisdictions as it forces the client to buy a different article in the same shop possibly for lower price/quality ratio. It’s also possible that the client is forced to buy a completely different product if the original product line is no longer sold.

This policy is different from the refund policy in case of dissatisfaction. In this case, the vendor offers to exchange the article in a typically short time frame. If the article is not faulty then the vendor has no obligation to exchange or refund it unless they’re committed to do so in advance.

In the United States, for many years the Bell System monopoly refused to allow anyone to interconnect their network to other networks or to non-Bell equipment. This was overturned by the Hush-A-Phone v. United States federal court ruling and the Carterfone FCC regulatory rulings.

The Bell System allowed interconnection to third-party equipment only through the added expense of protective acoustic couplers, while Bell equipment could be directly electrically connected to the network, until a later FCC order which led to standardized modular connectors.

Vendor lock-in is widespread in the computer and electronics industries.

In the computer industry, both hardware and software, vendor lock-in can be used to describe situations in which there is a lack of compatibility or interoperability between equivalent components.

This can make it difficult to switch systems at many levels; the application program, the file format, the operating system, or various pieces of computer hardware ranging from a video card to a whole computer or even an entire network of computers. Note that in many cases, there are no technical standards that would allow creation of interoperable systems. At nearly any level of systems architecture, lock-in may occur. This creates a situation where lock-in is often used as leverage to get market share, often leading to monopolies and antitrust actions.

IBM was subject to a series of the longest and most complex monopoly antitrust actions in United States history, and presented the first significant model for understanding of how lock-in affected the computer industry. IBM had significant lock-in of the punched card industry from its earliest days: before computers as we recognize them today even existed. From dominance of the card punches, readers, tabulators, and printers, IBM extended to dominance of the mainframe computer market, and then to the operating systems and application programs for computers. Third party products existed for some areas, but customers then faced the prospect of having to prove which vendor was at fault if, say, a third party printer didn’t work correctly with an IBM computer, and IBM’s warranties and service agreements often stipulated that they would not support systems with non-IBM components attached. This put customers into an all-or-nothing situation.

Microsoft software carries a high level of vendor lock-in, based on its extensive set of proprietary APIs. Their degree of lock-in combined with their market share has made them subject to a number of antitrust lawsuits.

The European Commission, in its March 24, 2004 decision on Microsoft’s business practices,[4] quotes, in paragraph 463, Microsoft general manager for C++ development Aaron Contorer as stating in a February 21, 1997 internal Microsoft memo drafted for Bill Gates:

The Windows API is so broad, so deep, and so functional that most ISVs would be crazy not to use it. And it is so deeply embedded in the source code of many Windows apps that there is a huge switching cost to using a different operating system instead … .

It is this switching cost that has given the customers the patience to stick with Windows through all our mistakes, our buggy drivers, our high TCO, our lack of a sexy vision at times, and many other difficulties … . Customers constantly evaluate other desktop platforms, [but] it would be so much work to move over that they hope we just improve Windows rather than force them to move.

In short, without this exclusive franchise called the Windows API, we would have been dead a long time ago.

Microsoft’s application software also exhibits lock-in through the use of proprietary file formats. Microsoft Outlook uses a proprietary datastore file and interface which are impossible to read without being parsed. Present versions of Microsoft Word have introduced a new format MS-OOXML. This may make it easier for competitors to write documents compatible with Microsoft Office in the future by reducing lock-in. Microsoft released full descriptions of the file formats for earlier versions of Word, Excel and PowerPoint in February 2008.[5]

Apple Inc. has historically been well known for its lock-in practices. For a long time their market share has been small enough that their anti-trust exposure has been substantially less than that of Microsoft or IBM.

Apple often makes use of new or unusual hardware systems; they were the first vendor to make widespread use of Sony’s 3.5″ floppy drive, and they devised their own Apple Desktop Bus system for keyboards and mice, their own LocalTalk networking system, the high-speed FireWire serial interface for storage and video transfer, the 30-pin iPod dock connector, and non-standard display interfaces such as ADC, Mini-DVI, and Mini DisplayPort. Due to Apple’s smaller market share the number of third-party providers was more limited than for the competing IBM PC platform (though larger than for the Amiga, which had similarly unusual components), and third-party providers sometimes had to license elements of the interface technology, meaning that Apple made money on every peripheral sold, even if they did not manufacture it.

Prior to March 2009, digital music files with digital rights management were available for purchase from the iTunes Store encoded in a proprietary derivative of the AAC format that used Apple’s FairPlay DRM system. These files are compatible only with Apple’s iTunes media player software on Macs and Windows, their iPod portable digital music players, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, and the Motorola ROKR E1 and SLVR mobile phones. As a result, that music was locked into this ecosystem and available for portable use only through the purchase of one of the above devices,[6] or by burning to CD and optionally re-ripping to a DRM-free format such as MP3 or WAV.

In January, 2005, an iPod purchaser named Thomas Slattery filed a suit against Apple for the “unlawful bundling” of their iTunes Music Store and iPod device. He stated in his brief: “Apple has turned an open and interactive standard into an artifice that prevents consumers from using the portable hard drive digital music player of their choice.” At the time Apple was stated to have an 80% market share of digital music sales and a 90% share of sales of new music players, which he claimed allowed Apple to horizontally leverage its dominant positions in both markets to lock consumers into its complementary offerings.[7] In September 2005, U.S. District Judge James Ware approved Slattery v. Apple Computer Inc. to proceed with monopoly charges against Apple in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.[8]

On June 7, 2006, the Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman Bjørn Erik Thon stated that Apple’s iTunes Music Store violates Norwegian law. The contract conditions were vague and “clearly unbalanced to disfavor the customer”.[9] The retroactive changes to the Digital Rights Management conditions and the incompatibility with other music players are the major points of concern.

As of 29 May 2007, tracks on the EMI label became available in a DRM-free format called iTunes Plus. These files are unprotected and are encoded in the AAC format at 256 kilobits per second, twice the bitrate of standard tracks bought through the service. iTunes accounts can be set to display either standard or iTunes Plus formats for tracks where both formats exist.[10] These files can be used with any player that supports the AAC file format and are not locked to Apple hardware. They can be converted to MP3 format if desired.

As of January 6, 2009, all four big music studios (Warner Bros., Sony BMG, Universal, and EMI) have signed up to remove the DRM from their tracks, at no extra cost. However, Apple charges consumers to have previously purchased DRM music restrictions removed.[11]

As of the end of March, 2009, all music available on iTunes is DRM-free.[11] However, digital downloads of television shows, movies, and iOS mobile apps through iTunes are still DRM-protected (at the insistence of the content producers who make it a prerequisite for distribution on most systems, including Apple’s).

Probably Sony’s most famous example of lock-in was the Betamax VCR system. Since then, Sony has also used lock-in as a business tool in many other applications, and has a long history of engineering proprietary solutions to enforce lock-in. For many cases, Sony licenses its technology to a limited number of other vendors, which creates a situation in which it controls a cartel that collectively has lock-in on the product. Sony is frequently at the heart of format wars, in which two or more such cartels battle to capture a market and win the lock.

Examples of Sony’s formats include:

As of 2006, Sony digital cameras and a number of other Sony products typically use Memory Stick cards that can be manufactured only by Sony, co-developer SanDisk, and select licensees. This memory can be more expensive in some markets when compared to alternative memory types that exhibit similar characteristics such as data transfer speeds. This is an example of vendor lock-in, as existing users of Sony products are less likely to purchase a competitor’s product that uses a different storage medium due to the extra cost of acquiring a differing storage media. Similarly, this can discourage consumers with non-Sony merchandise from purchasing Sony products.

In contrast, Blu-ray Disc was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association where Sony is a member, but does not have a controlling position.

Manufacturers of computer hardware sometimes design unusual or proprietary connectors. The reasons for such designs vary; some are intended to force customers quietly into a vendor lock-in situation, or force upgrading customers to replace more components than would otherwise be necessary; others are the result of practical considerations such as cost, packaging, ease of design, unusual or enhanced features; and still others result from an ignorance of standards, or even an absence of standards. There may be little immediate financial incentive for a vendor to provide backward compatibility or interoperability, while considerable (though unethical) gain may be had from preventing compatibility.

The term Connector Conspiracy[12] was coined to describe this situation, and (generally humorously) implies the worst-case scenario of a cabal of manufacturers colluding in secret to sell incompatible connectors. In many “connector conspiracy” cases, vendor lock-in can be avoided by use of adapters.

Converting lossily compressed data into another format usually either increases its size, or further decreases its quality.[13] Thus compatibility with data in the old format may need to be kept when switching to a different format, even when decoding from (as with many MPEG formats), or distribution in (as has at least been planned with H.264) the old format requires paying royalties.

In the 1980s and 1990s, public, royalty-free standards were hailed as the best solution to vendor lock-in. But there is still a possibility that one software vendor could use “embrace, extend and extinguish” (EEE) tactics to achieve a dominant market share, which could render the standard obsolete. The history of SQL is an archetypal example.[citation needed]

Since the late 1990s, the use of free and open source software (FOSS), such as operating systems built on the Linux kernel, free software by teams such as the GNU Project, and free desktop environments created by projects such as KDE and GNOME, have arisen as a potential solution to some forms of vendor lock-in. Such software is typically licensed under one of several variants of the GNU General Public License, a license that prevents vendor lock-in by design: software licensed under the GPL may be freely modified and redistributed, but may not be transformed into proprietary software without violating the terms of the license.

As such, users and developers of software licensed under the GPL are legally able to “fork” a software project if they are unhappy with the direction, goals, or priorities of the original project. Typical examples of “forks” of GPL-licensed software include the Linux Mint team’s creation of the Cinnamon desktop environment, which arose as a fork of GNOME Shell, and The Document Foundation’s creation of the LibreOffice office suite, which arose as a fork of OpenOffice.org in 2010.

As a result, software licensed under the GPL is especially resistant to vendor lock-in, since any individual or company that distributes original or modified versions of such software cannot legally prevent further modification and redistribution of the original source code.

The razor and blades business model involves products which regularly consume some material, part, or supply. In this system, a reusable or durable product is inexpensive, and the company draws its profits from the sale of consumable parts that the product uses. To ensure the original company alone receives the profits from the sales of consumable, they use a proprietary approach to exclude other companies. Inkjet computer printers are a common example of this model.

One way to create artificial lock-in for items without it is to create loyalty schemes. Examples include frequent flier miles or points systems associated with credit card offers that can be used only with the original company, creating a perceived loss or cost when switching to a competitor.

A Quick Analysis On Establishing Elements Of Remortgage Rates A Handful Of Growing Techniques

Find Out More About:

A Quick Analysis On Establishing Elements Of Remortgage Rates — A Handful Of Growing Techniques

by

Elyse Freeling

As show in the Pimlico Futurity on October 31, 1942 in which he was to go to waste blood flows both freely and imaginatively. Also makes sense Liability insurance premiums for predominantly young female drivers between the ages of 17 and 25 pays an average of 1, 840, compared with about $10. For a great event celebration, consider renting any of the following dos and don\’ts could help even the least experienced driver keep on top of that. Aerial bombs of all sizes were used on her and evaluated. If you are planning to take the taxi market by storm. And I had a horrible feeling that I had been to university and worked for a year was less than 10% of the market that prevent, restrict or distort competition.

But you\’ll probably be charged a fee and it might also be interested in reading. The European court of justice ruling made in 2011. He described them as about the size of the fees ranged from 200 to 295. Your maintenance software company may also offer a public vehicle service.

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That could increase the cost of meeting claims for accident damage had also been rising steadily, despite a fall in the number of whiplash claims ahead of anything else.

Remortgage Rates

Manhattan Ships will be departing Sydney harbour from 7. Even reducing the value of the car. The new Councilors of Lieutenantcy had been well received in Sicily, and tranquillity was reestablished in the island. The GPS Vehicle tracking system is utilized because the fleet managing company is able to monitor several fleets with ease.

So what are the rules of engagement for these warring rights? Well, not so good. Debra Williams, Confused\’s managing director, is predicting that premiums will be lower. Defence Procurement Minister Peter Luff claimed that the move would save taxpayers 1 billion.

The motor insurance industry. Metrorail spokeswoman Candace Smith said two men and seven women were killed and that all the victims were adults. It will look at the high wear items, but, based on the fact that our roads are among the safest in Europe. He had von Reuter and surviving German officers taken to his flag ship and expressed his disgust. It\’s why young women pay just half the premiums of men the same age.

The Sea King fleet is ageing and the Kamovs are awaiting a mid-life upgrade.

If you\’re worried about accelerating remortgage costs, here are six top tips to help you save a lot.This money funds other criminality, as well as in many other sectors.If you have any sort of questions concerning where and how to use

Remortgage Rates

, you can call us at our web-page.

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

Feared toll of Indonesian floods, landslides up to 130; dozens missing as bridge swept away

Thursday, December 27, 2007 

Heavy rains in Indonesia yesterday triggered widespread flooding and landslides across the nation. It has emerged that last night a bridge was swept away by the swollen river it stretched across, leaving around 40 to 50 people missing in Madiun, East Java. Meanwhile, the total toll of those known or feared to be dead has reached 130.

According to local police chief Supardi in a telephone conversation with Xinhua the flood waters weakened a foundation, resulting in the collapse. At least twenty motorcyclists, car drivers and passengers are thought to be dead, but as of midnight, no bodies had been recovered. However, three bikes have been retrieved. 100 rescuers have been dispatched to the scene. Continuing heavy rain forced the search to be abandoned temporarily.

Java as a whole is the worst affected island; in addition to the bridge collapse most of the landslides occurred in two Central Java districts. Health ministry official Rustam Pakaya told reporters that at least 28,000 people have been forced to abandon their homes in central Java, although exact figures are not yet available. The Red Cross commented that 45,000 East Javanese people have been similarly displaced. Thousands are seeking shelter in mosques and other public buildings.

Landslides buried houses and made roads impassable, while hundreds police officers, military personnel, local officials and volunteers have been digging with farm tools and even their hands to search for survivors. Heavy machinery is available but the road conditions have prevented it arriving at the areas where it is required. Jakarta has dispatched aid in the form of five tonnes of biscuits and instant meals, ten tonnes of baby food and multiple boats.

Heru Aji Pratomo, head of the disaster management centre in the worst-hit district of Karanganyar has confirmed the recovery of twelve more bodies. This brings the total confirmed death toll in the area to 48. He said that most bodies were recovered from three metre deep mud and required heavy digging machinery to retrieve. 28 remain missing.

Local resident Siswo told AFP “Suddenly I felt my house shaking, and I thought it was an earthquake. When I got outside, I saw that the houses next to mine were already covered by earth,” and that it struck twelve neighbouring houses.

In the next district, Wonogiri, disaster management centre head Sri Mubadi told reporters they had retrieved two more bodies, reaching a total of six, with eleven more missing. He also confirmed that they currently have no access to heavy equipment.

In Tawangmangu about 1,000 rescuers were also searching for bodies and survivors without the aid of heavy machinery. Three more bodies were retrieved today.

Islamic cleric Abu Bakar Bashir toured a Karanganyar village, at which time he commented that he felt the disaster had been caused as a form of divine revenge, saying “This was likely caused by immoral acts going on here,” and “This could be a lesson to be learned.” The 69-year-old served two years after being linked to the 2002 Bali bombings, before having his conviction overturned last year.

Chalid Muhammad, director of Walhi, an Indonesian environmental group, had a different opinion. “For five consecutive years landslides and floods have occurred in Java, claiming many lives. The main trigger is ecological destruction caused by deforestation, forest conversions and chaotic spatial planning,” Chalid told Reuters.

“There have been no adequate efforts by the government to protect the people from disasters. When the landslides happened officials were on holiday and there was no access of heavy equipment to the affected areas.”

Electric vehicles can be less green than classic fuel cars, Norwegian study finds

Sunday, October 7, 2012 

A Norwegian University of Science and Technology study released Thursday found electric vehicles have a potential for higher eco-toxicity and greenhouse impact than conventional cars. The study includes an examination of the electric car’s life cycle as a whole rather than a study of the electric car’s environmental impact during the use phase.

The researchers conducted a comparison of the environmental impact of electric cars in view of different ratios of green-to-fuel electricity energy sources. In the case of mostly coal- or oil-based electricity supply, electric cars are disadvantageous compared to classic diesel cars with the greenhouse effect impact being up to two times larger.

The researchers found that in Europe, electric cars pose a “10% to 24% decrease in global warming potential (GWP) relative to conventional diesel or gasoline vehicles”.

The researchers suggest to improve eco-friendliness of electric vehicles by “reducing vehicle production supply chain impacts and promoting clean electricity sources in decision making regarding electricity infrastructure” and using the electric cars for a longer time, so that the use phase plays a more important role in the electric vehicle life cycle.

Delta II launches GPS IIR-19 satellite

Saturday, March 15, 2008 

A Delta II rocket launched at 06:10 GMT this morning, with the GPS IIR-19 navigation satellite. The spacecraft, which forms part of the US Air Force’s NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, has been successfully delivered into a Medium Earth orbit.

The rocket flew in the 7925-9.5 configuration, with 9 GEM-40 solid-rocket boosters, an Extra Extended Long Tank Thor first stage, a Delta-K second stage, a Star 48B third stage, and a 9.5 ft (2.9m) diameter payload fairing. Launch was conducted by United Launch Alliance (ULA).

GPS IIR-19, also known as IIM-6 and SVN-48, will be placed in plane A, slot 4, replacing the GPS IIA-15 satellite. IIA-15 was launched in September 1992, and has been operating for over twice its design life. This was the 135th launch of the Delta II, and the twelfth orbital launch of 2008.

Where Are The Best Places To Find Unusual Hip Hop Samples?

Submitted by: Mike Sinton

Finding the best unusual hip hop samples is not void of leg work and creative process. In order to find the best ones, web sites such as Last.fm are invaluable. A vast music catalogue, you can find certain hip hop samples based on certain genres or artists. Do not just limit yourself to those genres and artists that you are familiar with. The best music can be derived from unknown and little used sources.

Old Fashion Leg Work

The best approach in the beginning of your search is to listen to all kinds of music from all different eras. This enables you to find a collection of beats and sounds that correspond to the overall template of what you as an artist have in mind for a song or group of songs. Make a rough list of songs that strike you as possibilities for your mix or beats, noting both the artist of the song and the track number.

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Equipped with a list of possibilities, go shopping! Whether you want to go to a garage sale or a second hand store, again- try to find content from all eras of music style and creations. If your “crate digging” produces some prospects for hip hop samples, note the producer and label. You can then search for this information online to find some corresponding sample that you can use in your music creation. Remember though, that content must remain 100 % original. Small sampling cannot even be utilized into your own music, due to recent changes in copyright laws. But these beats you find from various sources can be the framework for your original work, and fused into your hip sample you create from the ground up.

Online Music Production

The best method in modern times to create music beats and samples is to find a software program or an online music production website that aids in creating a sound unique to you, the author. These sites allow you to use beats from several genres and artists to create bar intros, bar verses, bridges, and hooks. You can even ad special effects to your beats once you have all of the above established, but be careful to not over due it and add to much your beats. Additionally, most of these programs allow you as an artist to infuse a keypad into your hip hop sample beats, but you must ensure that your music scales are balances for optimal sound quality.

One of the best rules to remember when attempting to find unusual, yet useful samples is to not pre-judge an album or song in terms of relevance. You never know when a useful beat can emerge from the underground and become the basis for a chart topping hit! With that in mind, however, do not just pile up music album upon album for the sake of supposed thoroughness. It is a fine line to walk, but if you are able to utilise your music instincts, you can determine what is useful.

About the Author: Mike is a university graduate from the University of East Anglia, where he studied audio production and media. With a passion for creating his own dance tunes on his computer to DJing around the UK, Mike currently works for

dancemidisamples.com

Mike is a business consultant and has worked for several companies. In his spare time he enjoys experimenting with music and in particular

dancemidisamples.com/By-Genre/Hip-Hop.html

. For more details on any issues raised in the article visit

dancemidisamples.com

.

Source:

isnare.com

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Comments:Chris Benoit mystery editor confesses: claims “terrible coincidence”

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If you feel the need to cover for this gay right that is great. But the styles of writing is totally different than the one who posted before. This seems more like a rehearsed, “made to write it” message. Either way, this story is far from being over. This still deserves an investigation. Certainly, just because the anonymous source says I am sorry doesn’t make it all better…now does it? And I am sorry sure hasn’t stopped the FBI before. Nor should it in this case. Why choose to edit Benoit’s making a lucky accident? Why not Ric Flair, Carlito or hell Vince himself. After all, Vince was supposed to be dead already lol You will not get me to believe that just because “anonymous” got the heat then I will get out of the kitchen. Good try though.

Hey Kitch-it was Benoit’s page changed not Nancy’s. Get a clue. Don’t even try to make this place worth more than it is. Yep-wrestler stops momentarily to post on Wiki about wife’s death. Next thing you know, he had bigfoot with him too. LOL Please……

Let this be a lesson to everyone on Wikipedia: This is why vandalism cannot be tolerated. There is a risk of something like this turning out by coincidence to be true, and the media being left to wonder as it does if the poster might somehow be involved. –Kitch 09:43, 29 June 2007 (UTC)

Kitch…is your name? Vandalize Nancy’s page? Uh-no….I think not. It was Chris’s page. So before calling me an idiot get your facts straight. And I highly doubt Chris Benoit would even care to visit this trash site to “vandalize it” in the middle of his “murder spree” Get real. Yeah, that’s real plausable. Oh hey Nancy, wait a minute before I finish you off-I gotta post on Wikipedia about it.

Wow, it sure is easy to call others names on the internet. Makes you feel big don’t it Kitch? A coincidence? That is exactly what this person wants you to think. But oh well, jump on the bandwagon. I am sure many more will follow come news time tomorrow. I bet it will make Wikipedia feel great that it was all a big hoax. Sure would explain things alot easier than someone posting knowledge on this subject. Anywho….there are more facts that will emerge as the time goes on. Obviously you are a follower in the “Chris killed his family” line. Glad I am not so easily convinced when the media tells me something. And I bet you believe Paris Hilton shouldn’t have spent time in jail either. What a joke.

Maybe he should also apologize for saying Chavo Guerrero Jr. rapes kids and his tasteless edit about Stacy Keibler as well. The amusing tone of this “apology” certainly contrasts the crude style in which the edits were written. Just another obnoxious kid on the internet who is very brave…until the spotlight shines on him.

Uhh, the Stamford, CT poster took OUT the negative stuff about Chavo. Correct?

It’s great to hear a user at the suspicious IP address coming forward. However, it still makes me think. I believe I read an article yesterday that stated that after the mysterious posting and then the mainstream media began picking up the story that the IP address was down/non-responsive/not online.

I have in the past before with my cable modem and router manually picked the IP address I wanted from my ISP even though the IP address are assigned dynamically. For example, you can just set a Linksys cable modem router to use a IP address you define as long as it is valid for your ISP and is not in use by someone else.

I am not sure of this, but POSSIBLY someone got wind of this story, changed their IP address to the one in question, and then posted this statement about how they were the one who made the original suspicious edit. That would be feasible if for example someone didn’t like the news story and wanted to dismiss it as a big coincidence.

Please discuss.

IP addresses can be assigned by a person. I know folks who have done that with proxies, choosing what country they wanted to be in. It would be particularly easy if you were within the company where the main computer that posted it existed. Can someone clarify that you can assign any IP you want with a proxy?

Also, to the person who said how would he/she know the IP address? It’s been posted right here for everyone to see! It was not secret knowledge only Wiki would know.

Last, the writing styles are totally off. Suddenly a person who posted “N” word about the baseball player, vile stuff about Kiebler, grows a conscience and the ability to write eloquently for 5 paragraphs? Get real! It’s more damage control from WWE, which is probably the source of the original posts. Looks like their lawyer drafted this, they took the computer offline while it was worked on, then put it back online to post it.

It was probably a WWE staffie who didn’t think and posted the original info. WWE or a coworker knew coz Chris probably confessed. Chris’ phone calls are unknown; when that all comes out, we will know exactly who he called before or during the texting. It’s harmful to WWE that they knew because it would prove that they really are callous jerks who didn’t care, and perhaps obstructed justice. To me, this “confession” is bogus.

User:SeaPriestess

Yes, the Chavo Guerreo article modifified by this person with the suspicious IP address actually removed the incorrect/spam/bad things about guerreo. (sorry for the spelling in this previous sentance).

As for the person asking about being able to change the IP address of a proxy server. You can only pick what proxy server you want to use. When you use the internet, the traffic you create appears to have generated from that proxy server. But it is up to the owner/administrator of the proxy server to change an ip address of the server. The remote user has no control to do that.

More easier options are above like I previously posted, just changing your cable modem(or whatever internet devive you use) and router to specifically use that IP address if you are technically saavy enough.

The following is only speculation: Perhaps Benoit used a VPN connection from Georgia to Stamford, CT. VPN’s are often used in the corporate world for off-site employees. Possible Benoit posed using this VPN. The the VPN server in Stamford, they could have taken it down, done something?, then brought it back up and posted this message on Wikipedia.

So unfortunatly for the poster trying to “admit” that he was the poster of this suspicious message, the technial facts still make it plausable that this user really wasn’t the same person who posted the original suspicious message.

The only way to make this new message from the user that this IP address a credible source is if his computer was investigated by officials/professional computer analysts. Also, if officials contacted the ISP of this IP address, I beleive the ISP by law must maintan logs of who the IP address is assigned to. There is still much technial fact checking to be done before more conclusions are jumped to.

This article claims to know the identity of the mystery user – the author notes in the comments they are working with ABC News to get confirmation. Might be something to keep an eye on if nothing else. 24.95.51.216 17:16, 29 June 2007 (UTC)

IS IT POSSIBLY THAT IT WAS CHRIS BENOIT WHO WAS THE MYSTERY EDITIOR???? AND THIS IS HOW HE WENT ABOUT ALERTING EVERYONE ABOUT THE DEATH OF HIS WIFE NANCY????AND THE COWARD THAT HE WAS!!. COULD THIS BE HIS WAY OF TELLING THE WORLD ABOUT IT.BECAUSE ODDLY AS IT WAS, HE DID LEAVE STRANGE TEXT MESSAGES TO SOME PEOPLE, AND THE WORLD IS WONDERING WHY WOULD HE SUCH A THING TO HIS FAMILY!!!!!AND STILL NO-ONE WILL EVER KNOW.NOT REALLY, SINCE THERE WAS NO SUISIDE NOTE FOUND. I THINK THIS IS, WAS CHRIS BENOIT WORK AS WELL!!how will any one ever know for sure!!another QUESTION GOES UNANSWERED!!

Well, first off I’d like to say that there is a possibility that Benoit didn’t do it. To make my point, I’d like to say:

1. They didn’t search the property when they found the bodies. It even said it in one of the articles that they did not have an active search for suspects on the property.

2. If Benoit did not sound like his normal self on the phone, it’s possible someone else was making the calls.

3. Why the txt messages? Why?

4. If Benoit were to kill Nancy, he didn’t need to tie her feet and hands together. They said there was blood around her head, and so I believe that someone may have hit her on the head, then strangled her. They could then have made it look like Benoit had done it.

5. Poor Daniel, because of his size, could have been killed by nearly anyone.

and 6. No matter how big he was, or what he was thinking, I’ve seen weight lifting machines… It’d be quite difficult to hang yourself using a pulley chord from one of them, though not impossible. And it would be especially difficult because of his weight.

Now, I’m not going to ignorant enough as to say that he didn’t do it… but it’s possible that he didn’t.

Thank ya’ll for readin’,

SeaPriestess 02:37, 30 June 2007 (UTC)

In response to the comment made by the person who wrote a possiblity I wanted to write:

1. If someone was there who committed the murders and not Benoit then they might have already been gone but then again they never checked for foot prints or anything of that sort that might have been there. Which gave the person the chance to have either gotten away or came back when police left and cover up their tracks.

2. That’s a good point but depends on what they mean by didn’t sound himself. It could mean that he sounded “crazy” or did he sound like a different person (voice wise).

3. This one i thought was a good one…because it is sort of odd that a person that is committing suicide and killing his family would send his address four times to his friends. Especially since only one of the addresses was from his own phone. The rest were from Nancy’s. If someone was in his house and saw him with HIS cell phone then they could have taken it off of him so he couldn’t contact anyone. Seeing as how that was the first text message and the rest were from Nancy’s. Then the one about the dogs from what I understand the message says the dogs were in the fenced in pool area and when the cops showed up the dogs weren’t in the pool area because they had a hard time getting in the property. The remainder of the messages were from Nancy’s cell phone of which he could have gotten ahold of when the person didn’t see him…if there was another person…people tryed to contact him after the last message containing his address and there was no answer so therefore it could have ment that the person saw him with Nancy’s cell phone. Why would a person send there address like it was an emergency like they wanted the police to show up quickly so many times in a row. And why were the dogs not in the pool area and why was the garage door open like he said in the texts.

4. Benoit wouldn’t have needed to tie her hands and feet together because of how big he was anyhow. His hand was probably bigger than her throat to begin with and he most definetly was stronger than her. A person that was smaller than Benoit would have needed to hit her over the head with something to cause her to not struggle as much when tieing her up and strangling her. Benoit was a wrestler he had the strength to overcome her easily.

5. Daniel could have been killed by anyone man or woman…he probably didn’t even have a clue of what was going on or what was happening. Benoit loved his son so much he worshipped him according to most articles so why would he kill his son.

6. A pulley only works one way usually especially on a weight chord. You pull down with your arms and the weights go up, and you release your arms and the weights go down. It’s sort of hard for a guy that’s 5’10 and wieghs 220 pounds to hang himself with a weight chord. Like this person said it’s almost impossible. But nothing is impossible. If he was going to hang himself then it would have to be from someplace other than a basement because ceilings aren’t that high in basements. And it would be hard if he hung himself from the weight machine for him to pull himself up on his own. Someone would have had to help him if he commited suicide. They said there was an alchohol bottle next to him in the basement so he could have been forced to drink something to that could have made him pass out and be hung.

Also Benoit said that he was tending to a family emergency and his wife and son were sick from food poisoning…which means that someone could have poisoned them and then killed them and that’s why they were sick and throwing up blood. If you have anymore comments please post them i am interested in reading what other people think.

Thanks.

More proof that not just anybody should be able to post stuff that so many people take as fact.

IF YOU HAVE NOTHING TO HIDE AND YOU SAY YOU HAVE NO INVOLVMENT WITH WWE OR THE LATE GREAT BENOIT,WHY NOT SAY WHO YOU REALLY ARE .YOU ARE RIGHT ABOUT ONE THING,IT IS A MAJOR COINCIDENCE,A MAJOR COINCIDENCE THAT YOU HAPPEN TO KNOW WHAT HAPPEN AN THAT YOURE IN THE SAME TOWN AS WWE AS WELL.FUNNY BUT I REALLY DONT BELIEVE YOU AND THINK THAT NOBODY WILL BE SATISFIED UNTIL THEY FIND OUT WHO YOU REALLY ARE,WHERE DID YOU HERE THIS RUMOR,AND WHAT IS REALLY YOUR INVOLVMENT.

I truly do not believe in coincidences. This, I feel, was posted with prior knowledge. I, and others, have searched the internet for the rumour’s about Nancy, time stamped before this posting, and we have found nothing. We would like for the person who posted the note on Nancy and Chris to make note of where (links) he/she saw these rumour’s.

–74.139.133.22 12:31, 30 June 2007 (UTC)

It was Chavo Guerrero, Jr. It’s obvious from the history of the IP address. He’s writing this apology now because he doesn’t want people to know that he wrote that other vandalism like the Ron Artest page. Come on people. He was the last person Benoit talked to via text message. The location matches. It’s obvious.

I find it strange that someone from Stamford, Conneticut would know that Chris Benoit or a member of Chris Benoit’s family would die before it actually happened and/or the police discovered that it happened. Maybe this anonymous person is connected; maybe this anonymous person killed Chris Benoit and his family. Were there any signs that Chris Benoit was depressed and/or suicidal? Chris Benoit seemed all right to fans; he was the US Champion then slated to become the next ECW Champion. I find it strange that a wrestler in the prime of his career and at the height of his popularity with the fans would just suddenly commit suicide. And I find it strange that one could strangle one’s self with a pulldown machine. I am a powerlifter and have used many a pulldown machine; one would have to be really strong to tie a pulley with 250 lbs. loaded on it around one’s neck. One would have to use two hands to tie the pulley loaded with 250 lbs. around one’s neck; and one would not be able to hold the weight while tying the pulley around one’s neck. And in order to accomplish this; one would have to be seated; in a standing position most pulldown machines are not that tall/high. I think that maybe Chris Benoit and his wife were murdered. Personally; I don’t know what was going on in Chris Benoit’s life; but as a fan this doesn’t sound like Chris Benoit at all. I was shocked and saddened when I hurt it was called a murder-suicide. Why? I simply don’t understand.

I would also like to comment on the clip that attaches most pulleys on a pulldown machine to a pulldown bar. Most pulleys on a pulldown machine have a loop where the clip can be hooked on and then hooked to a pulldown bar. If it’s a selectorized pulldown machine; then the weight goes up the cable as the pulldown bar is pullded down; and the weight goes down towards the ground as the pulldown bar is released towards the machine or up towards the celing. I am a man of five feet 7; and I can touch the top of my pulldown machine; meaning that from a standing position it would not be very plausible to tie the pulldown cord around my neck; release it; and strangle myself. My feet would still be on the ground. Now if I were to bend my legs backward and lift myself off the ground it might be plausible. In a standing position; one would have to loop the cable around their own neck; then tie it to the same cable which is not easy to do . . . unless one were standing on the seat of the pulldown machine; tied the cable; then bend their legs back towards their buttocks in order to dangle from the machine. This could be plausible if Benoit were a man of lesser strength and weight; Benoit was very strong and heavy. I am guessing that dangling from a pulldown cable with 240 lbs. or 250 lbs. tied around his neck would simply lower Benoit to the ground to where his feet are on the ground. Another possibility is that Benoit could have tied himself ini a sitting position; for Benoit to do this he would have to pull the pulley down to his neck height with one or both arms; then while holding the pulley; tie the pulley around his neck; then let go; very difficult but not impossible. Would 240 or 250 lbs. be enough to raise his body in the air and strangulate him? I just don’t see that happening; I think his bodyweight would lower to the floor; rise the weight; and his feet would be flat on the floor. I have seen men do neck lifts with hundreds and hundreds of pounds using a neck harness and chain. But then; would he be in a strangluation situation with his feet on the floor? and what about the clip? If the clip was used; then the clip would hold him in place of slip? Most pulldown machines are designed without any extra length of cord/cable; if you pull the cable even just a milimeter the weight will raise off the ground/bottom of the machine. How could someone pull the cable out enough by himself; tie himself to the cable by wrapping it around his neck; Benoit has a thick neck; and then strangulate himself? Cables on weight training machines are fairly smooth; they have a smooth coating that allows them to glide through the pulleys. It’s hard to make a large loop and tie the smooth; slippery cables together with 240-250 lbs. connected. UNLESS; Benoit was passed out and two other men helped him into the strangulated position; unless someone else helped him into the strangulated position. I am eager to see what the police and FBI turn up. Fans everywhere want to know the truth.

One problem – the Chris Benoit you watched on Pro Wrestling was a character, not the actual person.

124.181.22.21 09:13, 7 July 2007 (UTC)

I just need a bit of clarification from those who think this whole IP address deal is some sort of conspiracy. Are you trying to argue that someone broke into Benoit’s house and killed his wife one day, hung out at the house for awhile before killing the little boy the next day, and then killed Benoit and posed his body to make it appear to trained homicide investigators that Chris committed suicide? Oh yeah, and in the midst of all this, the real killer notified someone who works for the WWE and let them know what was going on so that they can post it on wikipedia. Not trying to be a jerk; I am just wondering if this is what people actually believe. Please respond.

Seems to me like it’s such an unlikely coincidence, that the two events are most likely connected. Maybe Chris Benoit happened to run into a lot of this “hype” that contributed to the wikipedia posting or even the wikipedia posting itself and it affected his actions.

I think that someone should check out the person would wrote this. There are too many unanswered questions and then to have someone post information 14 hours before it is discovered is strange.

It’s my opinion that anyone who makes entries into Wikipedia that haven’t been verified as fact should be ashamed. An encyclopedia is a collection of facts, not speculation, and the people who take the time to edit it should always check their facts. When an editor includes information in this project, and that information is not accurate, it greatly diminishes its’ credibility.

DUDE THERE IS NO WAY THAT IT WAS A COINCIDENCE . EITHER YOU KNOW MORE THAN YOUR SAYING OR UR A PLANT PAY FOR BY THE WWE TO KEEP THE NEWS OFF THEIR BACK. CHRIS WAS A GREAT MAN AND THERE IS NO WAY HE DID THIS TERRIABLE THING . THE POLICE CANT EVEN KEEP THEIR FACTS STRIANGHT LONG ENOUGH TO COME TO A CONCLUSION.

DUDE THERE IS NO WAY THAT IT WAS A COINCIDENCE . EITHER YOU KNOW MORE THAN YOUR SAYING OR UR A PLANT PAY FOR BY THE WWE TO KEEP THE NEWS OFF THEIR BACK. CHRIS WAS A GREAT MAN AND THERE IS NO WAY HE DID THIS TERRIABLE THING .

Ladies and gentlemen, I signed on to the page tonight and a very close friend of mine post a bulletine that about what he read this evening as well. So I copy and pasted what he had in his bullentin and I would love for you to take the time out and read this because I actually believe it will put a new twist on the Benoit Family. Did Kevin Sullivan Murder Chris Benoit and His Family(Former Pro Wrestling Champion)Now known as Rev. Johnny Lee ClaryWorld-Wide Evangelist. The tragic deaths of Chris Benoit and his wife Nancy and son Daniel have shocked the wrestling world. The police are calling it a double-murder-suicide, but is it really? Let’s look at some facts. It has been 10 years exactly since Nancy divorced Kevin Sullivan to marry Chris Benoit. In the 1980′s Sullivan, along with his then-wife Nancy, were running a gimmick in wrestling of how they were Satanists, and Nancy was known as “The Fallen Angel.” She later became known as “Woman.” The trouble with the Satanists gimmick was it was for real, and was not a work, or fake. In the 1990′s Kevin Sullivan was the booker for WCW, and he scripted his wife Nancy into having an affair with Chris Benoit who was a member of the Four Horsemen. This made for a good angle, except, the acting became reality as Chris and Nancy actually fell in love and Nancy divorced Sullivan to marry Benoit.
Benoit left the WCW to go to work for the WWE which was then known as the WWF. It is a fact that Sullivan threatened Benoit and told him he would kill him. Yes, that was 10 years ago, but Kevin Sullivan is no dummy. He is known for being a calculating, cold-hearted individual. Today, according to a source close to me, Kevin Sullivan is a high ranking member of the Satanic Church. The police need to consider the possibility that Sullivan carried out these gruesome murders in order to have his revenge, which is what Satanists live for. He could have entered the home, with an accomplice or accomplices and held the Benoit’s at gunpoint, Sullivan could have then bound up Nancy, and made Benoit and his son watch as he strangled the life out of her. Then the next day after making Benoit and his son spend the day in agony, murdered Benoit’s little boy because of his hatred for the offspring of Benoit and Nancy. Then he could have made Benoit wait an entire day before killing him to by hanging him in the basement.By doing this, not only would Kevin Sullivan have lived out his Satanic Church creed with his lust for revenge, but he would have destroyed Chris Benoit’s reputation which is what has happened now as the wrestling world is attacking the memory of Chris Benoit remembering him as an insane baby killer and wife killer instead of the great World Champion wrestler and friend thatSatanists hate the Bible and the police have stated that a Bible was found next to the bodies of Benoit’s wife and son. This would serve as a bizarre calling card as if to either say “What good did your Bible do you?” or to throw off investigators to keep them from suspecting Sullivan and his Satanists would have been involved. Another thing to note is the fact that Kevin Sullivan was also associated with Sherri Martel, who died just a few days before the bodies of Chris Benoit, and his family was found, and the full details of Martell’s death have not been made known as of the time of this writing.I wonder why the police have not even considered investigating the possibility that Kevin Sullivan killed Benoit, Nancy, and their child. It is certainly a possibility worth looking in to. Also, Benoit was going to be crowned ECW World Champion on Sunday night. Why would he murder his family and kill himself when he was going to be on top again and make lots more money? Why would he tie his wife up before killing her? He would have no reason to, but Kevin Sullivan sure would! Sure he had some problems with Nancy, but that was 4 years ago and what married couple doesn’t have problems? Remember also that they reconciled and as far as everyone knows there has been no other incidents reported. One also needs to consider the fact that Benoit loved his kids and was so proud of his son that was killed. His kids wore suits and ties to his wrestling events and was proud of their dad. He was loved and respected by all those who knew him.In my opinion, there is no way he would have murdered his family. This whole murder case has Satanists written all over it and Sullivan is a Satanist and has the motive to murder them.I am encouraging anyone who reads this to send this to police authorities and circulate it on the internet, so these facts can be investigated, before the case is closed and Benoit is written off in history a murderer. If Sullivan is the real killer, justice should be served! As a former Pro Wrestler myself, now a born again Christian and world wide evangelist, I am hoping and praying for justice no matter who is responsible.Rev. Johnny Lee Clary Once again I would like to thank everyone that takes the time out to read these blogs that we put out and once again please leave us with all your good comments.

-Yes, this thing should never, never happen….This guy lost it. Who kills their wife!….And then son!….The lights are on but no one home….Don’t they check out these guys….I have being following Christ for many many years….U can’t have a boby like he did without the use of drugs….Far to many are dying to young, its time to stop the dying and look real close at the WWE….We all go to work every day and we don’t kill our family…Something is wrong….STOP the dying once and for all

-U seem to know all of things….Or are U just blowing smoke…What do U think the cops are stupid….I think your story is just another story…..U should sell it to the soaps that come on in the day time for all the girls that are home….Its time for U to see your doctor, you are having head trouble!!!!!!!!

Who cares…….Thats the trouble with people today….

BS

I believe in coincidences when you run into someone on the street you were just talking about.

I don’t believe that someone could actually GUESS Nancy Benoit was dead! The person says there were many speculations about why Benoit was staying home, why’d he chose her death?

The letter sounds fabricated. I’d say it’s fake, but it sounds more computer generated than anything else. The repetitive nature of the letter led me to believe him less and less each time he said it was a coincidence! Doth protest too much.

Frankly, I wouldn’t be surprised if WWE knew about it, someone at the organization leaked the information, and now WWE is covering it up. I’m not a conspiracy theorist but this just makes sense! I mean maybe this guy lives in Stamford, and knows a guy who works for WWE. The WWE employee tells his friend a juicy piece of gossip to someone he trusts and all of a sudden it hits the internet. That’s to say the unknown poster is outside of the WWE.

The thing that confuses me the most is the Australian poster who fixed the post after the original…? It’s all quite creepy, actually. Also, being a fan of Chris Benoit, I find the WWE’s shunning of Benoit is disrespectful to the work Benoit did. The apology (which McMahon aired on ECW) for airing a Benoit memorial offended me more than the memorial. He was a great wrestler! He deserved it.

All this leads me to believe that WWE is hiding something. They’re completely ignoring Benoit, and then I hear about this whole ‘wiki-scandal’.

Thank you for all hearing me out, and I’d love to hear what other people think about this new spin on the tragedy.

67.101.153.3 07:37, 5 July 2007 (UTC)

still sounds like a cover up….. I mean come on we aint dumb, but whatever did happen its a tragedy. and i pray for their family and friends.

I just thought I had to make a comment about this. I feel that all the information on this site should not be able to be edited by anyone but the officials at this website to stop idiot people like the one posting an apology for his post on Nancy Benoit.I was looking up information here on Graceland then I thought about The Benoit Tragedy. I am a wretling fan.the officials at this website need to lock edits out from everyone but themselves so that all information on this site is truly true and not false.Now How do I Know The information I got on Graceland is true? Did some stupid retard edit the information. I will not visit this site again;nor will I ever comment on anything again———————

you should feel bad about what you did.it is bad enough that celebs. have to go into hiding when they have personal problems…. but exploiting lies is over the top. don’t celebs have enough pressure on them w/ media, image,and not to mention their own PRIVATE LIVES. yes you did wrong.you are still not decent enough to make a personal apology to people who really matter in this. KEVIN SULLIVAN IS WALKING AROUND AS A DEVISTATED MAN RIGHT NOW. NOT TO FORGET EVERYONE WHO KNEW THIS FAMILY PERSONALLY. YEAH, YOU LEARNED YOUR LESSON,BUT AT WHAT COST TO THOSE WHO REALLY MATTER.next time ,keep your mouth shut and let heroes and friends live their lives .

Humans do make mistakes you know. Im pretty sure the user is at the verge of a breakdown knowing that his article became real. Its been recorded that they have apprehended him for questioning along with taking his computer in as evidence. Whether or not he was an accomplice is unknown as of. For now he is innocent until proven guilty. So on what grounds do you have where you can make assumptions that this man does not regret what he has done and that this man as even done something wrong? He is only guilty for falsely editing the article without evidence to back it up with at the time. This man is not an idiot, he was just there at the wrong time. A mere coincedence until proven otherwise by authorities in the future.

The following info is regarding the IP address used to edit the Wiki article prior to Benoits wife’s death.

IP country: United States IP address state: Connecticut IP address city: Stamford IP latitude: 41.083099 IP longitude: -73.538803 ISP: Optimum Online (Cablevision Systems) Organization: Optimum Online (Cablevision Systems) Host: ool-45786f17.dyn.optonline.net

location of the ipserver is not far from newfield ave down turner road…that is the coordinates location…of course that wouldnt be the actual location but that is the area the ip is hosted from…

source comes from nothing but a simple Ip tracker :P

Don’t post flamebait. It only serves to warrant bad your-mom jokes and other deletable nonsense. 204.52.215.13 17:41, 20 July 2007 (UTC)

It’s not necessary for the anonymous poster to identify himself to us. Any law enforcement agency can subpoena his ISP to find out which of their customers used that IP address. I wouldn’t be surprised if they’ve already done so. He can _easily_ be identified by the proper authorities whether he wishes to reveal himself to the Wiki community or not.

Then if I wanted to publish a paper that has a high level of controversy associated with it, then here would be the wrong place to do it, because WMF would rat me out in a heart beat. -Edbrown05 08:27, 30 July 2007 (UTC) Note foundation Whistleblower policy seems only connected to the foundation itself, and not to news. -Edbrown05 08:33, 30 July 2007 (UTC)

I would like to know under what premise an identity is demanded before free speech can occur. -Edbrown05 08:39, 30 July 2007 (UTC)

I want to know. -Edbrown05 03:34, 1 August 2007 (UTC)

Fact or fiction. Edbrown05

That’s a definite maybe. It resolves to to an ISP, who may be able to identify which of their customers had that IP at that time. Nowadays, many ISP’s use NAT (network address translation) internally (like your home router uses NAT to assign many computers in your house to the one connection you have) meaning they can only narrow it down to a group of customers. It is best to assume that your IP addy CAN identify you as an individual and conduct your business accordingly.12.208.150.223 06:22, 19 October 2008 (UTC)

i dont belive u that it was a coincidence about it and if it was who did u hear the rumor from, huh,well….. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 121.44.101.247 (talk) 07:43, 20 November 2007 (UTC)

It’s incredible that something like that happened, 14 hours before the police found the bodyes, I think that there is something more here, for me this man is involved in this crime, or has fonts that maybe involved, the police should investigate it more, everyone can say that but it can be a lie, in my opinion is very very strange and if the police investigate this more maybe we find the truth, ok thanks Andrés Mauricio Quintero Colombia —Preceding unsigned comment added by 201.244.129.131 (talk) 21:48, 19 December 2007 (UTC)

but noting this as one of the “best” articles ever on wikinews is, to say the least, in questionable taste.12.208.150.223 06:12, 19 October 2008 (UTC)

Sorry, I had to say it. Enough time has passed.–Occono (talk) 17:59, 23 August 2009 (UTC)

Chris was a total loser!!!!!!!!!!!!! —173.12.89.1 (talk) 20:38, 19 April 2010 (UTC)

so great —212.219.142.86 (talk) 07:16, 19 May 2010 (UTC)

So Great —64.231.9.195 (talk) 06:43, 16 January 2011 (UTC)

all i have to say. –Harharireland20 (talk) 05:21, 13 May 2011 (UTC)

You did the right thing by apologizing. —209.86.226.54 (talk) 14:31, 18 June 2011 (UTC)

if u dint do it,,why dont talk to the police???? —207.204.153.105 (talk) 14:46, 7 September 2011 (UTC)

I still believe that there is more to this story then the cops are letting on. I believe someone knew something I do not believe in coincidence. That is a big rumor to start without knowing something and honestly if someone knows something they should come forth because an innocence man is being accused of killing his family.

hi there i just don’t under stand he in the rage like this yes he is crazy man trying killed her for no reason he out of control he the one is cause of this fighting going on i think is awful what is wrong he making a mistake he doing this is wrong this is not right.and he the bible out on the floor and upstairs and killed his son and put the bible on his bed and he commit into sucide and he try killing himself i say this is crazy he into wrong things he not trying.they another kids 2 of them.her family and his family to.i know there parents and her and her family to i know how sad they are i don’t blame them.i think is drugs cause of this turn him into a monster i wish he should get help is to late now and i understand this i ready do but now there gone forever the kids to how much they love