Lawrence Lessig

Lawrence “Larry” Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic and political activist. He is a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications, and he has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention.[1] In May 2014, he launched a crowd-funded political action committee which he termed May Day PAC with the purpose of electing candidates to Congress who would pass campaign finance reform.[2]

Lessig is director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University and a Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Previously, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of the Center for Internet and Society. Lessig is a founding board member of Creative Commons and the founder of Rootstrikers, and is on the board of MapLight.[3] He is on the advisory boards of the Democracy Café,[4] Sunlight Foundation[5] and Americans Elect.[6] He is a former board member of the Free Software Foundation, Software Freedom Law Center and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[7]

Born in Rapid City, South Dakota, Lessig grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and earned a B.A. in Economics and a B.S. in Management (Wharton School) from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. in philosophy from the University of Cambridge (Trinity) in England, and a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1989. After graduating from law school, he clerked for a year for Judge Richard Posner, at the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago, Illinois, and another year for Justice Antonin Scalia at the Supreme Court.[8]

Lessig started his academic career at the University of Chicago Law School, where he was Professor from 1991 to 1997. From 1997 to 2000, he was at Harvard Law School, holding for a year the chair of Berkman Professor of Law, affiliated with the Berkman Center for Internet & Society.[8] He subsequently joined Stanford Law School, where he established the school’s Center for Internet and Society.[9]

Lessig returned to Harvard in December 2008 as Professor and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.[10] In 2013, Lessig was appointed as the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law and Leadership; his chair lecture was titled “Aaron’s Laws: Law and Justice in a Digital Age.”[11][12] In 2013, Lessig was also awarded an honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Social Sciences at Lund University, Sweden.[13]

Lessig is currently considered politically liberal. As a law clerk, however, he worked for both Judge Richard Posner and Justice Antonin Scalia, two influential conservative judges.

Lessig has emphasized in interviews that his philosophy experience at Cambridge radically changed his values and career path. Previously, he had held strong conservative or libertarian political views, desired a career in business, was a highly active member of Teenage Republicans, served as the Youth Governor for Pennsylvania through the YMCA Youth and Government program[14] in 1978, and almost pursued a Republican political career.

What was intended to be a year abroad at Cambridge, convinced him instead to stay another two years to complete a graduate degree in philosophy and develop his changed political values. During this time, he also traveled in the Eastern Bloc, where he acquired a lifelong interest in Eastern European law and politics.

Lessig refuses to embrace conventional libertarianism. While he remains skeptical of government intervention, he favors regulation by calling himself “a constitutionalist.” In his blog, Lessig came out in favor of then Democratic primary candidate Barack Obama, citing the transformative nature of the Obama campaign as one of his chief reasons. On one occasion, Lessig also commended the John McCain campaign for discussing fair use rights in a letter to YouTube where it took issue with YouTube for indulging overreaching copyright claims leading to the removal of various campaign videos.[15]

In a speech in 2011, Lessig revealed that he was disappointed with Obama’s performance in office, criticizing it as a “betrayal”, and he criticized the president for using “the (Hillary) Clinton playbook”.[16] Lessig has called for state governments to call for a national constitutional convention,[17] and that the convention be populated by a “random proportional selection of citizens” which he suggested would work effectively. He said “politics is a rare sport where the amateur is better than the professional.”[17]

In 2013 he was an attendee of the 61th Conference of the Bilderberg Group, which took place in Watford, Hertfordshire, England, on 6–9 June.[18]

At the iCommons iSummit 07, Lessig announced that he will stop focusing his attention on copyright and related matters and will work on political corruption instead.[19] This new work may be partially facilitated through his wiki, Lessig Wiki, which he has encouraged the public to use to document cases of corruption.[20] Lessig criticized the revolving door phenomenon in which legislators and staffers leave office to become lobbyists and have become beholden to special interests.[21]

In February 2008, a Facebook group formed by law professor John Palfrey encouraged him to run for Congress from California’s 12th congressional district, the seat vacated by the death of U.S. Representative Tom Lantos.[22] Later that month, after forming an “exploratory project”, he decided not to run for the vacant seat.[23]

Despite having decided to forgo running for Congress himself, Lessig remained interested in attempting to change Congress to reduce corruption.[23] To this end, he worked with political consultant Joe Trippi to launch a web based project called “Change Congress”.[24] In a press conference on March 20, 2008, Lessig explained that he hoped the Change Congress website would help provide technological tools voters could use to hold their representatives accountable and reduce the influence of money on politics.[25] He is a board member of MAPLight.org, a nonprofit research group illuminating the connection between money and politics.

Lessig has known president Barack Obama since their days of both teaching law at the University of Chicago, and had been mentioned as a candidate to head the Federal Communications Commission, which regulates the telecommunications industry.[26]

At his talk at the 2009 Aspen Ideas Festival, Professor Lessig talked about Forbin Problems in a talk entitled Will Technology Change Our Lives?[27] and also about his idea that the American public has lost faith in the central institution of our democracy, Congress.[28]

In 2010, Lessig began to organize for a national constitutional convention.[29] He co-founded Fix Congress First! with Joe Trippi.[30] Lessig called for a convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution[31] in a September 24–25, 2011, conference co-chaired by the Tea Party Patriots’ national coordinator,[32] in Lessig’s October 5, 2011, book, Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress—and a Plan to Stop It,[33] and at the Occupy protest in Washington, DC.[34] Reporter Dan Froomkin said the book offers a manifesto for the Occupy Wall Street protestors, focusing on the core problem of corruption in both political parties and their elections.[35] Lessig’s initial constitutional amendment would allow legislatures to limit political contributions from non-citizens, including corporations, anonymous organizations, and foreign nationals, and he also supports public campaign financing and electoral college reform to establish the one person, one vote principle.[36]

Change Congress, founded by Lessig and Joe Trippi, the Fix Congress First project, and the Rootstrikers project were created to help volunteers to address the problem of money in politics.[37][38] In November 2011, Lessig announced all three projects would become part of the United Republic organization, along with Dylan Ratigan’s Get Money Out campaign.[39][40]

From January 11th until January 24th, 2014, Larry Lessig and many others, like New York activist Jeff Kurzon, marched from Dixville Notch, NH to Nashua NH (a 185 mile march) to promote the idea of tackling “The Systemic Corruption in Washington.” He chose this language over calling it “Campaign Finance Reform,” stating that “Saying we need campaign finance reform is like referring to an alcoholic as someone who has a liquid intake problem.” The walk was to continue the work of NH Native Doris “Granny D” Haddock. The NH Rebellion will march again on July 4 and 5.

In computer science, “code” typically refers to the text of a computer program (the source code). In law, “code” can refer to the texts that constitute statutory law. In his 1999 book Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Lessig explores the ways in which code in both senses can be instruments for social control, leading to his dictum that “Code is law.” Lessig later updated his work in order to keep up with the prevailing views of the time and released the book as Code: Version 2.0 in December 2006.

Despite presenting an anti-regulatory standpoint in many fora, Lessig still sees the need for legislative enforcement of copyright. He has called for limiting copyright terms for creative professionals to five years, but believes that creative professionals’ work, many of them independent, would become more easily and quickly available if bureaucratic procedure were introduced to renew trademarks for up to 75 years after this five-year term. [41] Lessig has repeatedly taken a stance that privatization through legislation like that seen in the 1980s in the UK with British Telecommunications is not the best way to help the Internet grow. He said, “When government disappears, it’s not as if paradise will take its place. When governments are gone, other interests will take their place,” “My claim is that we should focus on the values of liberty. If there is not government to insist on those values, then who?” “The single unifying force should be that we govern ourselves.” [42]

In 2002, Lessig received the Award for the Advancement of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation (FSF), and on March 28, 2004 he was elected to the FSF’s Board of Directors.[43] In 2006, Lessig was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[44] Lessig is also a well-known critic of copyright term extensions.

He proposed the concept of “Free Culture”.[45] He also supports free software and open spectrum.[46] At his Free Culture keynote at the O’Reilly Open Source Convention 2002, a few minutes of his speech was about software patents,[47] which he views as a rising threat to both free/open source software and innovation.

In March 2006, Lessig joined the board of advisors of the Digital Universe project.[48] A few months later, Lessig gave a talk on the ethics of the Free Culture Movement at the 2006 Wikimania conference. In December 2006 his lecture On Free, and the Differences between Culture and Code was one of the highlights at 23C3 Who can you trust?.[49]

Lessig claimed in 2009 that, because 70% of young people obtain digital information from illegal sources, the law should be changed.[50]

In a foreword to the Freesouls book project, Lessig makes an argument in favor of amateur artists in the world of digital technologies: “there is a different class of amateur creators that digital technologies have… enabled, and a different kind of creativity has emerged as a consequence.”[51]

In 2014 Lessig received Lifetime Achievement at the 2014 Webby Awards as cofounder of Creative Commons.[52]

Lessig has long been known to be a supporter of Net Neutrality. In 2006, he testified before the US Senate that he believed Congress should ratify Michael Powell’s four Internet freedoms and add a restriction to access-tiering, i.e. he does not believe content providers should be charged different amounts. The reason is that the Internet, under the neutral end-to-end design is an invaluable platform for innovation, and the economic benefit of innovation would be threatened if large corporations could purchase faster service to the detriment of newer companies with less capital. However, Lessig has supported the idea of allowing ISPs to give consumers the option of different tiers of service at different prices. He was reported on CBC News as saying that he has always been in favour of allowing internet providers to charge differently for consumer access at different speeds. He said, “Now, no doubt, my position might be wrong. Some friends in the network neutrality movement as well as some scholars believe it is wrong—that it doesn’t go far enough. But the suggestion that the position is ‘recent’ is baseless. If I’m wrong, I’ve always been wrong.” [53]

In May 2005, it was revealed that Lessig had experienced sexual abuse by the director at the American Boychoir School which he had attended as an adolescent.[54] Lessig reached a settlement with the school in the past, under confidential terms. He revealed his experiences in the course of representing another student victim, John Hardwicke, in court.[55] In August 2006, he succeeded in persuading the New Jersey Supreme Court to restrict the scope of immunity radically, which had protected nonprofits that failed to prevent sexual abuse from legal liability.[56]

Lessig’s political opinions on copyright law have led to legal challenges where he has attempted to put them into action without legislative change. In March 2003, he acknowledged severe disappointment with his Supreme Court defeat in the Eldred copyright-extension case, where he unsuccessfully tried to convince Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who has sympathies for de-regulation, to back his “market-based” approach to intellectual property regulation.[60]

In August 2013, Lawrence Lessig brought suit against Liberation Music PTY Ltd., after Liberation issued a takedown notice of one of Lessig’s lectures on YouTube which had used the song “Lisztomania” by the band Phoenix, whom Liberation Music represents.[61][62] Lessig sought damages under section 512(f) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which holds parties liable for misrepresentations of infringement or removal of material.[63] Lessig was represented by the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Jones Day.[64] In February 2014 the case ended with a settlement in which Liberation Music admitted wrongdoing in issuing the takedown notice, issued an apology, and paid a confidential sum in compensation.[65][66]

Lessig is married to Bettina Neuefeind, and is the father of three children (Willem, Teo, and Tess).[71]

Lessig was portrayed by Christopher Lloyd in “The Wake Up Call”, the February 9, 2005 episode of The West Wing.[72]

Lawrence Lessig

Lawrence “Larry” Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic and political activist. He is a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications, and he has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention.[1] In May 2014, he launched a crowd-funded political action committee which he termed May Day PAC with the purpose of electing candidates to Congress who would pass campaign finance reform.[2]

Lessig is director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University and a Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Previously, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of the Center for Internet and Society. Lessig is a founding board member of Creative Commons and the founder of Rootstrikers, and is on the board of MapLight.[3] He is on the advisory boards of the Democracy Café,[4] Sunlight Foundation[5] and Americans Elect.[6] He is a former board member of the Free Software Foundation, Software Freedom Law Center and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[7]

Born in Rapid City, South Dakota, Lessig grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and earned a B.A. in Economics and a B.S. in Management (Wharton School) from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. in philosophy from the University of Cambridge (Trinity) in England, and a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1989. After graduating from law school, he clerked for a year for Judge Richard Posner, at the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago, Illinois, and another year for Justice Antonin Scalia at the Supreme Court.[8]

Lessig started his academic career at the University of Chicago Law School, where he was Professor from 1991 to 1997. From 1997 to 2000, he was at Harvard Law School, holding for a year the chair of Berkman Professor of Law, affiliated with the Berkman Center for Internet & Society.[8] He subsequently joined Stanford Law School, where he established the school’s Center for Internet and Society.[9]

Lessig returned to Harvard in December 2008 as Professor and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.[10] In 2013, Lessig was appointed as the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law and Leadership; his chair lecture was titled “Aaron’s Laws: Law and Justice in a Digital Age.”[11][12] In 2013, Lessig was also awarded an honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Social Sciences at Lund University, Sweden.[13]

Lessig is currently considered politically liberal. As a law clerk, however, he worked for both Judge Richard Posner and Justice Antonin Scalia, two influential conservative judges.

Lessig has emphasized in interviews that his philosophy experience at Cambridge radically changed his values and career path. Previously, he had held strong conservative or libertarian political views, desired a career in business, was a highly active member of Teenage Republicans, served as the Youth Governor for Pennsylvania through the YMCA Youth and Government program[14] in 1978, and almost pursued a Republican political career.

What was intended to be a year abroad at Cambridge, convinced him instead to stay another two years to complete a graduate degree in philosophy and develop his changed political values. During this time, he also traveled in the Eastern Bloc, where he acquired a lifelong interest in Eastern European law and politics.

Lessig refuses to embrace conventional libertarianism. While he remains skeptical of government intervention, he favors regulation by calling himself “a constitutionalist.” In his blog, Lessig came out in favor of then Democratic primary candidate Barack Obama, citing the transformative nature of the Obama campaign as one of his chief reasons. On one occasion, Lessig also commended the John McCain campaign for discussing fair use rights in a letter to YouTube where it took issue with YouTube for indulging overreaching copyright claims leading to the removal of various campaign videos.[15]

In a speech in 2011, Lessig revealed that he was disappointed with Obama’s performance in office, criticizing it as a “betrayal”, and he criticized the president for using “the (Hillary) Clinton playbook”.[16] Lessig has called for state governments to call for a national constitutional convention,[17] and that the convention be populated by a “random proportional selection of citizens” which he suggested would work effectively. He said “politics is a rare sport where the amateur is better than the professional.”[17]

In 2013 he was an attendee of the 61th Conference of the Bilderberg Group, which took place in Watford, Hertfordshire, England, on 6–9 June.[18]

At the iCommons iSummit 07, Lessig announced that he will stop focusing his attention on copyright and related matters and will work on political corruption instead.[19] This new work may be partially facilitated through his wiki, Lessig Wiki, which he has encouraged the public to use to document cases of corruption.[20] Lessig criticized the revolving door phenomenon in which legislators and staffers leave office to become lobbyists and have become beholden to special interests.[21]

In February 2008, a Facebook group formed by law professor John Palfrey encouraged him to run for Congress from California’s 12th congressional district, the seat vacated by the death of U.S. Representative Tom Lantos.[22] Later that month, after forming an “exploratory project”, he decided not to run for the vacant seat.[23]

Despite having decided to forgo running for Congress himself, Lessig remained interested in attempting to change Congress to reduce corruption.[23] To this end, he worked with political consultant Joe Trippi to launch a web based project called “Change Congress”.[24] In a press conference on March 20, 2008, Lessig explained that he hoped the Change Congress website would help provide technological tools voters could use to hold their representatives accountable and reduce the influence of money on politics.[25] He is a board member of MAPLight.org, a nonprofit research group illuminating the connection between money and politics.

Lessig has known president Barack Obama since their days of both teaching law at the University of Chicago, and had been mentioned as a candidate to head the Federal Communications Commission, which regulates the telecommunications industry.[26]

At his talk at the 2009 Aspen Ideas Festival, Professor Lessig talked about Forbin Problems in a talk entitled Will Technology Change Our Lives?[27] and also about his idea that the American public has lost faith in the central institution of our democracy, Congress.[28]

In 2010, Lessig began to organize for a national constitutional convention.[29] He co-founded Fix Congress First! with Joe Trippi.[30] Lessig called for a convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution[31] in a September 24–25, 2011, conference co-chaired by the Tea Party Patriots’ national coordinator,[32] in Lessig’s October 5, 2011, book, Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress—and a Plan to Stop It,[33] and at the Occupy protest in Washington, DC.[34] Reporter Dan Froomkin said the book offers a manifesto for the Occupy Wall Street protestors, focusing on the core problem of corruption in both political parties and their elections.[35] Lessig’s initial constitutional amendment would allow legislatures to limit political contributions from non-citizens, including corporations, anonymous organizations, and foreign nationals, and he also supports public campaign financing and electoral college reform to establish the one person, one vote principle.[36]

Change Congress, founded by Lessig and Joe Trippi, the Fix Congress First project, and the Rootstrikers project were created to help volunteers to address the problem of money in politics.[37][38] In November 2011, Lessig announced all three projects would become part of the United Republic organization, along with Dylan Ratigan’s Get Money Out campaign.[39][40]

From January 11th until January 24th, 2014, Larry Lessig and many others, like New York activist Jeff Kurzon, marched from Dixville Notch, NH to Nashua NH (a 185 mile march) to promote the idea of tackling “The Systemic Corruption in Washington.” He chose this language over calling it “Campaign Finance Reform,” stating that “Saying we need campaign finance reform is like referring to an alcoholic as someone who has a liquid intake problem.” The walk was to continue the work of NH Native Doris “Granny D” Haddock. The NH Rebellion will march again on July 4 and 5.

In computer science, “code” typically refers to the text of a computer program (the source code). In law, “code” can refer to the texts that constitute statutory law. In his 1999 book Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Lessig explores the ways in which code in both senses can be instruments for social control, leading to his dictum that “Code is law.” Lessig later updated his work in order to keep up with the prevailing views of the time and released the book as Code: Version 2.0 in December 2006.

Despite presenting an anti-regulatory standpoint in many fora, Lessig still sees the need for legislative enforcement of copyright. He has called for limiting copyright terms for creative professionals to five years, but believes that creative professionals’ work, many of them independent, would become more easily and quickly available if bureaucratic procedure were introduced to renew trademarks for up to 75 years after this five-year term. [41] Lessig has repeatedly taken a stance that privatization through legislation like that seen in the 1980s in the UK with British Telecommunications is not the best way to help the Internet grow. He said, “When government disappears, it’s not as if paradise will take its place. When governments are gone, other interests will take their place,” “My claim is that we should focus on the values of liberty. If there is not government to insist on those values, then who?” “The single unifying force should be that we govern ourselves.” [42]

In 2002, Lessig received the Award for the Advancement of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation (FSF), and on March 28, 2004 he was elected to the FSF’s Board of Directors.[43] In 2006, Lessig was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[44] Lessig is also a well-known critic of copyright term extensions.

He proposed the concept of “Free Culture”.[45] He also supports free software and open spectrum.[46] At his Free Culture keynote at the O’Reilly Open Source Convention 2002, a few minutes of his speech was about software patents,[47] which he views as a rising threat to both free/open source software and innovation.

In March 2006, Lessig joined the board of advisors of the Digital Universe project.[48] A few months later, Lessig gave a talk on the ethics of the Free Culture Movement at the 2006 Wikimania conference. In December 2006 his lecture On Free, and the Differences between Culture and Code was one of the highlights at 23C3 Who can you trust?.[49]

Lessig claimed in 2009 that, because 70% of young people obtain digital information from illegal sources, the law should be changed.[50]

In a foreword to the Freesouls book project, Lessig makes an argument in favor of amateur artists in the world of digital technologies: “there is a different class of amateur creators that digital technologies have… enabled, and a different kind of creativity has emerged as a consequence.”[51]

In 2014 Lessig received Lifetime Achievement at the 2014 Webby Awards as cofounder of Creative Commons.[52]

Lessig has long been known to be a supporter of Net Neutrality. In 2006, he testified before the US Senate that he believed Congress should ratify Michael Powell’s four Internet freedoms and add a restriction to access-tiering, i.e. he does not believe content providers should be charged different amounts. The reason is that the Internet, under the neutral end-to-end design is an invaluable platform for innovation, and the economic benefit of innovation would be threatened if large corporations could purchase faster service to the detriment of newer companies with less capital. However, Lessig has supported the idea of allowing ISPs to give consumers the option of different tiers of service at different prices. He was reported on CBC News as saying that he has always been in favour of allowing internet providers to charge differently for consumer access at different speeds. He said, “Now, no doubt, my position might be wrong. Some friends in the network neutrality movement as well as some scholars believe it is wrong—that it doesn’t go far enough. But the suggestion that the position is ‘recent’ is baseless. If I’m wrong, I’ve always been wrong.” [53]

In May 2005, it was revealed that Lessig had experienced sexual abuse by the director at the American Boychoir School which he had attended as an adolescent.[54] Lessig reached a settlement with the school in the past, under confidential terms. He revealed his experiences in the course of representing another student victim, John Hardwicke, in court.[55] In August 2006, he succeeded in persuading the New Jersey Supreme Court to restrict the scope of immunity radically, which had protected nonprofits that failed to prevent sexual abuse from legal liability.[56]

Lessig’s political opinions on copyright law have led to legal challenges where he has attempted to put them into action without legislative change. In March 2003, he acknowledged severe disappointment with his Supreme Court defeat in the Eldred copyright-extension case, where he unsuccessfully tried to convince Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who has sympathies for de-regulation, to back his “market-based” approach to intellectual property regulation.[60]

In August 2013, Lawrence Lessig brought suit against Liberation Music PTY Ltd., after Liberation issued a takedown notice of one of Lessig’s lectures on YouTube which had used the song “Lisztomania” by the band Phoenix, whom Liberation Music represents.[61][62] Lessig sought damages under section 512(f) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which holds parties liable for misrepresentations of infringement or removal of material.[63] Lessig was represented by the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Jones Day.[64] In February 2014 the case ended with a settlement in which Liberation Music admitted wrongdoing in issuing the takedown notice, issued an apology, and paid a confidential sum in compensation.[65][66]

Lessig is married to Bettina Neuefeind, and is the father of three children (Willem, Teo, and Tess).[71]

Lessig was portrayed by Christopher Lloyd in “The Wake Up Call”, the February 9, 2005 episode of The West Wing.[72]

Planning The Right Destination Wedding Invitation For Your Island Wedding

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Submitted by: Keith Cangia

If you are planning a beach wedding, there are many great invitation styles available. Destination wedding, whether they are in a tropical location, a foreign country can be really special, and although fewer friends and family members may be able to attend due to the travelling involved, you should still send invitations to everyone you want to attend. A beach invitations can perfectly compliment your ceremony, reception, and honeymoon.Many weddings are held in tropical location or at the beach. Beach weddings are fun and natural, so look for a destination wedding invitation that matches. For example, an Enchanting Sands wedding invitation or a Shells of Love wedding invitation informs your guests right away that you are getting married on the beach. Perhaps you love the sun and water but not the sand. If you are getting married on a boat, choose an invitation, like the Ocean Liner wedding invitation that matches your big day.A beach wedding provides an excellent theme for your invitations and this location is a fun place to host a wedding. That said, it is not very specific, since there are hundreds of beaches around the world. You can find invitations instead that showcase the country or city you are visiting for your wedding. For example, a Bamboo Breeze wedding invitation is reminiscent of Asia. By alluding to your location with the design, you are also setting the stage of your destination-wedding announcement.

Destination Invitations – You can also choose to theme your destination invitations around the weather you should be experiencing at your wedding. Not all wedding destinations are warm and sunny! You might love the idea of a Winter Wonderland wedding invitation for a wedding that is taking place in a beautiful icy location like Aspen. On the other hand, if your wedding is in a warm location, you can choose an invitation with a sunny design. It is up to you and your preferences!Of course, you can get even more specific if you want and show off the exact city of your wedding with the design of your wedding invitation. It is also popular to not be too overt with your destination wedding invitation design. Although some people like to be clear that they are getting married in the mountains or by the shore, you can also choose to pick a more traditional style of wedding invitation. Staying true to the mood of your wedding is important, but your wedding invitation does not have to be covered with seashells to give off a vibe that is casual, flowing, and fresh. You can search for a traditional-style beach invitations instead.Sometimes, colors work best. Are you getting married outside in a beautiful garden? Choosing bright greens and whites can make for a nice design. Are you having a wedding in the fall forests in a mountain setting? The burnt orange, brown, and gold colors of fall are perfect for your destination invitations.Keep in mind that you may want to send two invitations in case you decide to have a small ceremony for those who could not travel at the time of the wedding.

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A rather fun and unique way to announce your destination wedding is via a message in a bottle destination wedding invitation, the Original Message in a Bottle shop has been creating unique and fun message in a bottle invitations for the past fourteen years, hundreds of brides and grooms have counted on the family owned business to create the perfect destination wedding invitations. On a budget, who isn’t these days, the Original Message in a bottle shop offers do it yourself kits, you order the parts from them and you assemble it.

This can allow you to celebrate with friends and family members who could not afford the trip, had scheduling conflicts, or were not healthy enough to travel. So, when ordering your destination invitations, keep in mind that you may be sending two invitations in the same envelope. You can also choose to send the invitations separately, but they should relate to one another to avoid too much confusion.Not every couple is lucky enough to have a destination wedding. While most would agree that a beautiful paradise destination would be a nice backdrop for one of the most important days of their lives, at the same time, it is also important that all of their loved ones be present at the ceremony, which is not always possible with a destination wedding. If you do choose to have your ceremony away from home, however, consider the hot new trend of destination invitations. They can help to announce you wedding plans to your guests in a fun, beautiful way.A destination wedding can take place anywhere and your invitations should reflect this location. Colors are an important aspect of the destination wedding invitation. You should choose colors that reflect the area such as light blue for a beach wedding. Another option is to include a picture of the location, as this can help prepare your guests for what they should expect upon arriving at the destination. Whichever invitations you eventually decide on for your wedding, be sure to allow your guests enough time to plan the trip.

destination wedding, wedding, island wedding

About the Author: Keith CThe Original Message in a Bottle Shop – since 1998destination wedding invitations from the Original Message in a Bottle Shop

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Canada’s Don Valley West (Ward 25) city council candidates speak

Friday, November 3, 2006 

On November 13, Torontonians will be heading to the polls to vote for their ward’s councillor and for mayor. Among Toronto’s ridings is Don Valley West (Ward 25). Three candidates responded to Wikinews’ requests for an interview. This ward’s candidates include John Blair, Robertson Boyle, Tony Dickins, Cliff Jenkins (incumbent), and Peter Kapsalis.

For more information on the election, read Toronto municipal election, 2006.

48-year-old John Blair is a high school English teacher.

Q: Describe the three most important issues in your campaign.

Q: What one election issue do you feel is most relevant to your ward in this election?

Q: Why have you chosen to involve yourself in the political process?

Q: Why do you want to represent this particular ward on council?

Q: How are you currently involved in the community?

Q: What does Toronto mean to you?

Q: Which council decision (since the 2003 election) do you feel the city/your ward should be most proud of, and which was least desirable?

Q: If you were elected as a “rookie” councillor, what would you bring to the table beyond the incumbent?

46-year-old Robertson Boyle is a management consultant (marketing/business development for businesses in the professional services)

Q: Describe the three most important issues in your campaign.

Q: What one election issue do you feel is most relevant to your ward in this election?

Q: Why have you chosen to involve yourself in the political process?

Q: Why do you want to represent this particular ward on council?

Q: How are you currently involved in the community?

Q: What does Toronto mean to you?

Q: Which council decision (since the 2003 election) do you feel the city/your ward should be most proud of, and which was least desirable?

Q: If you were elected as a “rookie” councillor, What would you bring to the table beyond the incumbent?

60-year-old Cliff Jenkins is the incumbent for Ward 25, Don Valley West. Previous to that, Jenkins was a client executive for IBM Canada, leading a team of information technology professionals to meet the business needs of a large client.

Q: Describe the three most important issues in your campaign.

Q: What one election issue do you feel is most relevant to your ward in this election?

Q: Why have you chosen to involve yourself in the political process?

Q: Why do you want to represent this particular ward on council?

Q: How are you currently involved in the community?

Q: What does Toronto mean to you?

Q: Which council decision (since the 2003 election) do you feel the city/your ward should be most proud of, and which was least desirable?

Categorization

Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.[1] Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference, decision making and in all kinds of environmental interaction. It is indicated that categorization plays a major role in computer programming.[2]

There are many categorization theories and techniques. In a broader historical view, however, three general approaches to categorization may be identified:

Classical categorization first appears in the context of Western Philosophy in the work of Plato, who, in his Statesman dialogue, introduces the approach of grouping objects based on their similar properties. This approach was further explored and systematized by Aristotle in his Categories treatise, where he analyzes the differences between classes and objects. Aristotle also applied intensively the classical categorization scheme in his approach to the classification of living beings (which uses the technique of applying successive narrowing questions such as “Is it an animal or vegetable?”, “How many feet does it have?”, “Does it have fur or feathers?”, “Can it fly?”…), establishing this way the basis for natural taxonomy.

The classical Aristotelian view claims that categories are discrete entities characterized by a set of properties which are shared by their members. In analytic philosophy, these properties are assumed to establish the conditions which are both necessary and sufficient conditions to capture meaning.

According to the classical view, categories should be clearly defined, mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. This way, any entity of the given classification universe belongs unequivocally to one, and only one, of the proposed categories.

Conceptual clustering is a modern variation of the classical approach, and derives from attempts to explain how knowledge is represented. In this approach, classes (clusters or entities) are generated by first formulating their conceptual descriptions and then classifying the entities according to the descriptions.

Conceptual clustering developed mainly during the 1980s, as a machine paradigm for unsupervised learning. It is distinguished from ordinary data clustering by generating a concept description for each generated category.

Categorization tasks in which category labels are provided to the learner for certain objects are referred to as supervised classification, supervised learning, or concept learning. Categorization tasks in which no labels are supplied are referred to as unsupervised classification, unsupervised learning, or data clustering. The task of supervised classification involves extracting information from the labeled examples that allows accurate prediction of class labels of future examples. This may involve the abstraction of a rule or concept relating observed object features to category labels, or it may not involve abstraction (e.g., exemplar models). The task of clustering involves recognizing inherent structure in a data set and grouping objects together by similarity into classes. It is thus a process of generating a classification structure.

Conceptual clustering is closely related to fuzzy set theory, in which objects may belong to one or more groups, in varying degrees of fitness.

Since the research by Eleanor Rosch and George Lakoff in the 1970s, categorization can also be viewed as the process of grouping things based on prototypes—the idea of necessary and sufficient conditions is almost never met in categories of naturally occurring things. It has also been suggested that categorization based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment.

A cognitive approach accepts that natural categories are graded (they tend to be fuzzy at their boundaries) and inconsistent in the status of their constituent members.

Systems of categories are not objectively “out there” in the world but are rooted in people’s experience. Conceptual categories are not identical for different cultures, or indeed, for every individual in the same culture.

Categories form part of a hierarchical structure when applied to such subjects as taxonomy in biological classification: higher level: life-form level, middle level: generic or genus level, and lower level: the species level. These can be distinguished by certain traits that put an item in its distinctive category. But even these can be arbitrary and are subject to revision.

Categories at the middle level are perceptually and conceptually the more salient. The generic level of a category tends to elicit the most responses and richest images and seems to be the psychologically basic level. Typical taxonomies in zoology for example exhibit categorization at the embodied level, with similarities leading to formulation of “higher” categories, and differences leading to differentiation within categories.

Miscategorization can be a logical fallacy in which diverse and dissimilar objects, concepts, entities, etc. are grouped together based upon illogical common denominators, or common denominators that virtually any concept, object or entity have in common. A common way miscategorization occurs is through an over-categorization of concepts, objects or entities, and then miscategorization based upon over-similar variables that virtually all things have in common.

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Work From Home Jobs Pay Like Theres No Tomorrow

By Barbara Joenes

Have you heard of people who make money with work from home jobs? Have you thought about doing it yourself? There is a rapidly growing industry made up of people who work from home. Todays entrepreneur may be your next door neighbor who is always at home and takes time out of his work schedule to play with his PDA, read a book, or eat lunch with his children.

Society is continuing to grow away from your stereotypical, mainstream patterns of living. The way we live, the entertainment that we choose, and how we see our family life has all changed. Look how many 10-year-olds carry cell phones. Things have definitely changed.

With everything else changing, it is only natural that the way we work would evolve as well. If your company is an Internet-based company, or a company that relies heavily on e-mails, IMs, and video conferencing, then why would it matter where your office is? In reality, it doesnt.

Work from home jobs are the next logical step for some people and some types of businesses. If you are buying product from China or Mexico and shipping it out to your clients all over the world, why would you be required to have an office? In that type of market, you would not need one. With wireless Internet, you can even work in remote areas of the country while on vacation away from the stress of the city. Work from home jobs mean that people are no longer settling for some substandard job. In todays world, anything is possible.

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But what if you are not trying to run a multinational company from your garage? How can this work for you? If you just had a child and are not able to work, or have decided to become a stay-at-home parent, then work from home jobs may be for you. If you have a good job and are looking for supplemental income, then part-time work from home jobs are definitely for you.

The only thing that can stop the growth of this booming industry is lack of imagination. There are endless ways to improve and streamline the work place. Most businesses know that it is cheaper, and in most cases better, to hire someone who works from home. People who work at home tend to be more self motivated than your run-of-the-mill 9-5 worker. If your job is to stuff envelopes or mail circulars and you are being paid by the piece, then you would most likely work at a faster pace than someone making minimum wage.

There is no limit to the type of work that you can do from your home (within reason you should still see your dentist in his office, not on a computer monitor). Your earning potential is now within your control.

You control the benefits that you receive with your work from home jobs. Since you will be working for yourself, you can take a break when you want to take a break. If you want a raise, you can authorize yourself a bigger paycheck.

When you make the decision to take on work from home jobs, do it with your eyes open. There are also disadvantages to working from home. The good and the bad must be considered and thought through carefully.

The hardest step in working from home is the decision to make the changes necessary in your life to facilitate the change. But do not despair, there are web sites that will tell you how to find work, how to do the work, and even send you work to help you get started. For instance, there are e-books that are designed as a step-by-step guide on how to use eBay to your advantage.

One of the benefits of being plugged to the online world is the abundance of information available at your fingertips. Not only is there information on how to work from home, there is information on how to succeed while doing it.

No matter what your reason or what type of job you are looking to get, if you really want to make a living with work from home jobs, you can. Start with something small and build up your confidence. Read the jobs and descriptions well and make sure that what you are looking at is what it says it is. Use the Internet to your advantage, use the unending flow of knowledge to position yourself in a better place, and good luck working from home.

About the Author: Information Net Source Corp. has been helping people find the perfect work at home jobs, businesses and opportunities for the last 9 years. Visit us on the web at

workingfromhomejobs.com

or reach one of our helpful work at home consultants at 1-800-488-5654.

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=106912&ca=Business

Couple assaulted, one killed in ‘goth clothing’ prompted attack

Thursday, March 13, 2008 

A case is currently being tried in England over the alleged assault of a ‘Goth’ couple, resulting in the death of the female victim. A fifteen-year-old youth, who was one of a gang of five, is charged with having kicked and stamped the 20-year-old woman to death in Stubby Lee Park, Bacup, Rossendale in Lancashire on the 11 August 2007.

The couple; Robert Maltby, an art student, 21 and Sophie Lancaster, 20; became engaged in an initially civil conversation with the drunken gang while walking in the park.

The attack began with a kick to the head of the male victim by the accused 15-year-old. the gang then continued to kick and stamp on Robert Maltby while laughing and encouraging each other. As Miss Lancaster begged the gang to stop beating her boyfriend they turned on her.

The jury were played a recording of a 999 call made shortly after the attack by an eye witness. In the recording, a girl is heard sobbing and crying who details the attack and pleads: “We need, we need an ambulance at Bacup Park, this mosher’s just been banged because he’s a mosher.” referring to the attack on Robert Maltby.

This motive was referred to by Michael Shorrock QC during the prosecution: “It would appear that [they] were singled out, not for anything they had said or done, but because they dressed differently to the defendant and his friend”.

Miss Lancaster sustained such extensive injuries that on the arrival of the paramedics they were unable to determine her gender. The couple were taken to hospital where both victims fell in to comas. Robert Maltby regained consciousness and survived his injuries but Sophie Lancaster died two weeks later.

The youth denies the charge but admits to causing grievous bodily harm with intent. Three other youths, two aged seventeen and one sixteen have been remanded in custody by Judge Anthony Russell QC after admitting to playing a part in the attack. They will face sentencing after the trial of the fifteen-year-old.

Couple assaulted, one killed in ‘goth clothing’ prompted attack

Thursday, March 13, 2008 

A case is currently being tried in England over the alleged assault of a ‘Goth’ couple, resulting in the death of the female victim. A fifteen-year-old youth, who was one of a gang of five, is charged with having kicked and stamped the 20-year-old woman to death in Stubby Lee Park, Bacup, Rossendale in Lancashire on the 11 August 2007.

The couple; Robert Maltby, an art student, 21 and Sophie Lancaster, 20; became engaged in an initially civil conversation with the drunken gang while walking in the park.

The attack began with a kick to the head of the male victim by the accused 15-year-old. the gang then continued to kick and stamp on Robert Maltby while laughing and encouraging each other. As Miss Lancaster begged the gang to stop beating her boyfriend they turned on her.

The jury were played a recording of a 999 call made shortly after the attack by an eye witness. In the recording, a girl is heard sobbing and crying who details the attack and pleads: “We need, we need an ambulance at Bacup Park, this mosher’s just been banged because he’s a mosher.” referring to the attack on Robert Maltby.

This motive was referred to by Michael Shorrock QC during the prosecution: “It would appear that [they] were singled out, not for anything they had said or done, but because they dressed differently to the defendant and his friend”.

Miss Lancaster sustained such extensive injuries that on the arrival of the paramedics they were unable to determine her gender. The couple were taken to hospital where both victims fell in to comas. Robert Maltby regained consciousness and survived his injuries but Sophie Lancaster died two weeks later.

The youth denies the charge but admits to causing grievous bodily harm with intent. Three other youths, two aged seventeen and one sixteen have been remanded in custody by Judge Anthony Russell QC after admitting to playing a part in the attack. They will face sentencing after the trial of the fifteen-year-old.

Chef who appeared on Gordon Ramsay’s ‘Kitchen Nightmares’ commits suicide

Wednesday, September 29, 2010 

Joseph Cerniglia, a chef who had appeared on Gordon Ramsay’s television show Kitchen Nightmares, has commited suicide. Cerniglia was the owner of Italian restaurant Campania. He jumped off a bridge into the Hudson river on the New York–New Jersey border. At the time of filming in 2007, Cerniglia owed suppliers $80,000.

Officials reported that 39-year-old Cerniglia had jumped off of the George Washington Bridge into the Hudson. His death has officially been ruled as suicide. His body was retrieved from the river after reports of a man jumping off of the bridge.

Ramsay released a statement to the Press Association saying “I was fortunate to spend time with Joe during the first season of Kitchen Nightmares. Joe was a brilliant chef, and our thoughts go out to his family, friends and staff.”

Cerniglia told Ramsay about his personal debt when he came to the restaurant in 2007. He said “I am financially in trouble. The debt of the restaurant alone is overwhelming. My personal debt — wife, kids, mortgage — that’s a lot of debt”.